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  1. Shiga toxins (Stxs) are the major agents responsible for hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) during infections caused by Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) such as serotype O157:H7. Central...

    Authors: Kiyomi Takahashi, Nobuaki Funata, Fusahiro Ikuta and Shigehiro Sato

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:11

    Content type: Research

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  2. Cytokines and alcohol share a common modulation of inflammation and hormones as well as being implicated in multiple diseases, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investi...

    Authors: Liya Qin, Jun He, Richard N Hanes, Olivera Pluzarev, Jau-Shyong Hong and Fulton T Crews

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:10

    Content type: Research

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  3. The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive despite identification of several genetic mutations. It is more likely that multiple factors converge to give rise to PD than any single cause. Here we ...

    Authors: James B Koprich, Casper Reske-Nielsen, Prabhakar Mithal and Ole Isacson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:8

    Content type: Research

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  4. The complement system is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous neurological diseases. We previously reported that pre-treatment of murine cortico-hippocampal neuronal cultures with the complem...

    Authors: Piali Mukherjee, Sunil Thomas and Giulio Maria Pasinetti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:5

    Content type: Short report

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  5. Previous studies have suggested that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ)-mediated neuroprotection involves inhibition of microglial activation and decreased expression and activity of ind...

    Authors: Bin Xing, Tao Xin, Randy Lee Hunter and Guoying Bing

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:4

    Content type: Research

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  6. Recent studies have demonstrated a role for spinal p38 MAP kinase (MAPK) in the development of chronic inflammation and peripheral arthritis and a role for GABA in the inhibition of p38 MAPK mediated effects. ...

    Authors: James M Kelley, Laura B Hughes and S Louis Bridges Jr

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:1

    Content type: Hypothesis

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  7. Activation of microglia is a part of the inflammatory response in neurodegenerative diseases but its role in the pathophysiology of these diseases is still unclear. The osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse lacks colony...

    Authors: Yoichi Kondo, Cynthia A Lemere and Timothy J Seabrook

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:31

    Content type: Research

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  8. In multiple sclerosis, inflammatory cells are found in both active and chronic lesions, and it is increasingly clear that cytokines are involved directly and indirectly in both formation and inhibition of lesi...

    Authors: Robert P Lisak, Joyce A Benjamins, Beverly Bealmear, Liljana Nedelkoska, Bin Yao, Susan Land and Diane Studzinski

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:30

    Content type: Research

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  9. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is genetically associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Elucidating the function of APP should help understand AD pathogenesis and provide insights into therapeutic designs...

    Authors: Yuzhi Chen and Angela M Bodles

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:29

    Content type: Research

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  10. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and mature oligodendrocytes are both lost in central nervous system injury and disease. Activated microglia may play a role in OPC and oligodendrocyte loss or replacemen...

    Authors: Brandon A Miller, Jeannine M Crum, C Amy Tovar, Adam R Ferguson, Jacqueline C Bresnahan and Michael S Beattie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:28

    Content type: Research

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  11. Activated microglia elicits a robust amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the intra...

    Authors: Chul-Su Yang, Hye-Mi Lee, Ji-Yeon Lee, Jeong-Ah Kim, Sung Joong Lee, Dong-Min Shin, Young-Ho Lee, Dong-Seok Lee, Jamel El-Benna and Eun-Kyeong Jo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:27

    Content type: Research

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  12. Neuroinflammatory responses are triggered by diverse ethiologies and can provide either beneficial or harmful results. Microglial cells are the major cell type involved in neuroinflammation, releasing several ...

    Authors: Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Antonio C Pinheiro de Oliveira, Sybille Gräf, Harsharan S Bhatia, Michael Hüll, Eduardo Muñoz and Bernd L Fiebich

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:25

    Content type: Research

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  13. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to mediate cellular infiltration in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation by cleaving extracellular matrix proteins associated with the blood-brain barrier. The...

    Authors: Henrik Toft-Hansen, Alicia A Babcock, Jason M Millward and Trevor Owens

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:24

    Content type: Research

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  14. The mechanisms involved in the induction and regulation of inflammation resulting in dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease (PD) are complex and incompletely understood. Microglia-mediated infl...

    Authors: Li Qian, Zongli Xu, Wei Zhang, Belinda Wilson, Jau-Shyong Hong and Patrick M Flood

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:23

    Content type: Research

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  15. An accumulating body of evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that excessive or prolonged increases in proinflammatory cytokine production by activated glia is a contributor to the progression of pathophy...

    Authors: Lenka Munoz, Hantamalala Ralay Ranaivo, Saktimayee M Roy, Wenhui Hu, Jeffrey M Craft, Laurie K McNamara, Laura Wing Chico, Linda J Van Eldik and D Martin Watterson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:21

    Content type: Research

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  16. Rabbits maintained on high-cholesterol diets are known to show increased immunoreactivity for amyloid beta protein in cortex and hippocampus, an effect that is amplified by presence of copper in the drinking w...

    Authors: Qing-Shan Xue, D Larry Sparks and Wolfgang J Streit

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:20

    Content type: Research

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  17. We have recently observed that the corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRF) related peptide urocortin (UCN) reverses key features of nigrostriatal damage in the hemiparkinsonian 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat. H...

    Authors: Amjad Abuirmeileh, Alexander Harkavyi, Rebecca Lever, Christopher S Biggs and Peter S Whitton

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:19

    Content type: Short report

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  18. Neuroinflammation following acute brain trauma is considered to play a prominent role in both the pathological and reconstructive response of the brain to injury. Here we characterize and contrast both an acut...

    Authors: Anthony J Williams, Hans H Wei, Jitendra R Dave and Frank C Tortella

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:17

    Content type: Research

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  19. Potential surrogate markers of disease activity, including response to therapy, are particularly important in a neurological disorder such as multiple sclerosis (MS) which often has a fluctuating course. Based...

    Authors: Alireza Minagar, Irena Adamashvili, Roger E Kelley, Eduardo Gonzalez-Toledo, Jerry McLarty and Stacy J Smith

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:16

    Content type: Research

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  20. The CC chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 are critical for the recruitment of mononuclear phagocytes to the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neuroinflammatory diseases. Mo...

    Authors: Sana Eltayeb, Anna-Lena Berg, Hans Lassmann, Erik Wallström, Maria Nilsson, Tomas Olsson, Anders Ericsson-Dahlstrand and Dan Sunnemark

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:14

    Content type: Research

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  21. The posttraumatic response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized, in part, by activation of the innate immune response, including the complement system. We have recently shown that mice devoid of a ...

    Authors: Iris Leinhase, Michal Rozanski, Denise Harhausen, Joshua M Thurman, Oliver I Schmidt, Amir M Hossini, Mohy E Taha, Daniel Rittirsch, Peter A Ward, V Michael Holers, Wolfgang Ertel and Philip F Stahel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:13

    Content type: Research

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  22. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in various brain pathologies characterized by hypoxia and ischemia. Astroglia play an important role in the initiation and propagation of hypoxia/ischemia-induced inflamma...

    Authors: Jelena Mojsilovic-Petrovic, Debbie Callaghan, Hong Cui, Clare Dean, Danica B Stanimirovic and Wandong Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:12

    Content type: Research

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  23. Information regarding the response of brain cells to infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 is needed for a complete understanding of viral neuropathogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that microglial...

    Authors: Rajagopal N Aravalli, Shuxian Hu and James R Lokensgard

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:11

    Content type: Research

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  24. It is well appreciated that obtaining sufficient numbers of primary microglia for in vitro experiments has always been a challenge for scientists studying the biological properties of these cells. Supplementing c...

    Authors: Nilufer Esen and Tammy Kielian

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:10

    Content type: Research

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  25. Microglial neuroinflammation is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The purpose of this study was to provide a histopathological evaluation of the microglial neur...

    Authors: Sarah E Fendrick, Qing-Shan Xue and Wolfgang J Streit

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:9

    Content type: Research

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  26. Data indicates anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-cognitive properties of noradrenaline and analyses of post-mortem brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients reveal major neuronal loss in the noradrenerg...

    Authors: Perdita L Pugh, Martin P Vidgeon-Hart, Tracey Ashmeade, Ainsley A Culbert, Zoe Seymour, Marion J Perren, Flora Joyce, Simon T Bate, Anna Babin, David J Virley, Jill C Richardson, Neil Upton and David Sunter

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:8

    Content type: Research

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  27. Progranulin (PGRN) is a pleiotropic protein that has gained the attention of the neuroscience community with recent discoveries of mutations in the gene for PGRN that cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration (F...

    Authors: Zeshan Ahmed, Ian RA Mackenzie, Michael L Hutton and Dennis W Dickson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:7

    Content type: Review

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  28. Male Lewis rats (6 weeks-old) were submitted to a calorie restriction equivalent to 33% or 66% of food restriction. Fifteen days later, groups of 7 animals were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant plus sp...

    Authors: Ana I Esquifino, Pilar Cano, Vanessa Jimenez-Ortega, María P Fernández-Mateos and Daniel P Cardinali

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:6

    Content type: Research

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  29. infection induces an acute phase response that is accompanied by non-specific symptoms collectively named sickness behavior. Recent observations suggest that microglial cells play a role in mediating behaviora...

    Authors: Afina W Lemstra, Jacqueline CM Groen in't Woud, Jeroen JM Hoozemans, Elise S van Haastert, Annemiek JM Rozemuller, Piet Eikelenboom and Willem A van Gool

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:4

    Content type: Research

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  30. Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism...

    Authors: Marvin Boris, Claudia C Kaiser, Allan Goldblatt, Michael W Elice, Stephen M Edelson, James B Adams and Douglas L Feinstein

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:3

    Content type: Case study

    Published on:

  31. The pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive, although evidence has suggested that neuroinflammation characterized by activation of resident microglia in the brain may contribute sig...

    Authors: Jinghua Jin, Feng-Shiun Shie, Jun Liu, Yan Wang, Jeanne Davis, Aimee M Schantz, Kathleen S Montine, Thomas J Montine and Jing Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Our recent results show that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an active metabolite of vitamin A, induces COX-dependent hyperalgesia and allodynia in rats. This effect was mediated by retinoic acid receptors (RARs)...

    Authors: Matilde Alique, Juan F Herrero and Francisco Javier Lucio-Cazana

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2007 4:1

    Content type: Research

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  33. There are reasons to expect an association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) within the HLA region. The HLA-B & C genes have, however, been relatively understudied. A geographically specific association with HLA-B7 &...

    Authors: Donald J Lehmann, Martin CNM Barnardo, Susan Fuggle, Isabel Quiroga, Andrew Sutherland, Donald R Warden, Lin Barnetson, Roger Horton, Stephan Beck and A David Smith

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:33

    Content type: Research

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  34. Substances of abuse, such as opiates, have a variety of immunomodulatory properties that may influence both neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease processes. The chemokine CCL2, which plays a pivotal ...

    Authors: R Bryan Rock, Shuxian Hu, Wen S Sheng and Phillip K Peterson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:32

    Content type: Research

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  35. Anti-inflammatory treatment affects ischemic damage and neurogenesis in rodent models of cerebral ischemia. We investigated the potential benefit of COX-2 inhibition with parecoxib in spontaneously hypertensiv...

    Authors: Jesper Kelsen, Katrine Kjær, Gang Chen, Michael Pedersen, Lisbeth Røhl, Jørgen Frøkiær, Søren Nielsen, Jens R Nyengaard and Lars Christian B Rønn

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:31

    Content type: Research

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  36. Secretory phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA) is an inflammatory protein known to play a role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Although this enzyme has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of n...

    Authors: Guna SD Moses, Michael D Jensen, Lih-Fen Lue, Douglas G Walker, Albert Y Sun, Agnes Simonyi and Grace Y Sun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:28

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Microglia are associated with neuritic plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD) and serve as a primary component of the innate immune response in the brain. Neuritic plaques are fibrous deposits composed of the amylo...

    Authors: Carol A Colton, Ryan T Mott, Hayley Sharpe, Qing Xu, William E Van Nostrand and Michael P Vitek

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:27

    Content type: Research

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  38. There is increased interest in the contribution of the innate immune system to multiple sclerosis (MS), including the activity of acute inflammatory mediators. The purpose of this study was to test the involve...

    Authors: Timothy J Cunningham, Lihua Yao, Michelle Oetinger, Laura Cort, Elizabeth P Blankenhorn and Jeffrey I Greenstein

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:26

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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