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  1. Multiple sclerosis (MS) remains without an effective treatment in spite of intense research efforts. Interferon-beta (IFN-β) reduces duration and severity of symptoms in many relapsing-remitting MS patients, b...

    Authors: Theoharis C Theoharides

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:29

    Content type: Commentary

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  2. The study is aimed to determine the role of luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), alone and in combination with human interferon-beta (IFN-β), in modulating the immune response(s) of peripheral blood monon...

    Authors: Zohara Sternberg, Kailash Chadha, Alicia Lieberman, Allison Drake, David Hojnacki, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman and Frederick Munschauer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:28

    Content type: Research

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  3. Recently, a novel factor with anorexigenic properties was identified and called nesfatin-1. This protein (82 aac) is not only expressed in peripheral organs but it is also found in neurons located in specific ...

    Authors: Marion S Bonnet, Emilie Pecchi, Jérôme Trouslard, André Jean, Michel Dallaporta and Jean-Denis Troadec

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:27

    Content type: Short report

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  4. Resveratrol, a polyphenol present in grapes and red wine, has been studied due to its vast pharmacological activity. It has been demonstrated that resveratrol inhibits production of inflammatory mediators in d...

    Authors: Lena Wendeburg, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Harsharan S Bhatia, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil and Bernd L Fiebich

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:26

    Content type: Short report

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  5. Although magnesium ions (Mg2+) are known to display many similar features to other 2+ charged cations, they seem to have quite an important and unique role in biological settings, such as NMDA blocking effect. Ho...

    Authors: Takahiro Ushida, Osamu Iwatsu, Kazuhiro Shimo, Tomoko Tetsunaga, Masahiko Ikeuchi, Tatsunori Ikemoto, Young-Chang P Arai, Katsutoshi Suetomi and Makoto Nishihara

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:25

    Content type: Research

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  6. Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) may present as meningitis, cranial neuropathy, acute radiculoneuropathy or, rarely, as encephalomyelitis. We hypothesized that glia, upon exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme dis...

    Authors: Geeta Ramesh, Juan T Borda, Amy Gill, Erin P Ribka, Lisa A Morici, Peter Mottram, Dale S Martin, Mary B Jacobs, Peter J Didier and Mario T Philipp

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:23

    Content type: Research

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  7. Chronic inflammation is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). An interaction associated with the risk of AD has been reported between polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of the genes for the pro-in...

    Authors: Onofre Combarros, Cornelia M van Duijn, Naomi Hammond, Olivia Belbin, Alejandro Arias-Vásquez, Mario Cortina-Borja, Michael G Lehmann, Yurii S Aulchenko, Maaike Schuur, Heike Kölsch, Reinhard Heun, Gordon K Wilcock, Kristelle Brown, Patrick G Kehoe, Rachel Harrison, Eliecer Coto…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:22

    Content type: Research

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  8. In animal models, ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury triggers membrane lipid degradation and accumulation of lipoxidative exacerbations in neurovascular unit, leading to blood brain barrier (BBB) damage and neur...

    Authors: Md Nasrul Hoda, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh and Mushfiquddin Khan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:21

    Content type: Research

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  9. Gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely applied for the visualization of blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experiment...

    Authors: Eva Tysiak, Patrick Asbach, Orhan Aktas, Helmar Waiczies, Maureen Smyth, Joerg Schnorr, Matthias Taupitz and Jens Wuerfel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:20

    Content type: Research

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  10. Inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI), exerting either deleterious effects on the progression of tissue damage or beneficial roles during recovery an...

    Authors: Hans H Wei, Xi-Chun M Lu, Deborah A Shear, Anu Waghray, Changping Yao, Frank C Tortella and Jitendra R Dave

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:19

    Content type: Research

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  11. Chronic neuroinflammation is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Inflammation involves the activation of microglia and astrocytes that release high levels of prostaglandins. There is a profound gap in our ...

    Authors: Sha-Ron Pierre, Marijke AM Lemmens and Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:18

    Content type: Research

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  12. Marrow stromal cells (MSC), the non-hematopoietic precursor cells in bone marrow, are being investigated for therapeutic potential in CNS disorders. Although in vitro studies have suggested that MSC may be immuno...

    Authors: Dianne M Camp, David A Loeffler, Diane M Farrah, Jade N Borneman and Peter A LeWitt

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:17

    Content type: Research

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  13. The unique physiology and function of neurons create differences in their cellular physiology, including their regulation of gene expression. We began several years ago exploring the relationships between the ...

    Authors: Xianrong R Mao, Andréa M Moerman-Herzog, Yuzhi Chen and Steven W Barger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:16

    Content type: Review

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  14. Brain inflammation plays a central role in numerous brain pathologies, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglial cells and astrocytes are the effector cells of neuroinflammation. They can be activated also...

    Authors: Antoinette Defaux, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich, Olivier Braissant, Paul Honegger and Florianne Monnet-Tschudi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:15

    Content type: Research

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  15. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is the founding member of a novel family of inflammatory cytokines that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and its...

    Authors: Jayasri Das Sarma, Bogoljub Ciric, Ryan Marek, Sanjoy Sadhukhan, Michael L Caruso, Jasmine Shafagh, Denise C Fitzgerald, Kenneth S Shindler and AM Rostami

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:14

    Content type: Research

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  16. The kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, bacterial endotoxins and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. In animal models of diabetes, it contributes to pain polyneuropathy. Thi...

    Authors: Sébastien Talbot, Patrick Théberge-Turmel, Dalinda Liazoghli, Jacques Sénécal, Pierrette Gaudreau and Réjean Couture

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:11

    Content type: Research

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  17. Septic shock is a prevalent condition that, when not lethal, often causes disturbances in cognition, mood, and behavior, particularly due to central actions of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). T...

    Authors: Eléonore Beurel and Richard S Jope

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:9

    Content type: Research

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  18. The CD133(+) stem cell population in recurrent gliomas is associated with clinical features such as therapy resistance, blood-brain barrier disruption and, hence, tumor infiltration. Screening of a large panel...

    Authors: Borhane Annabi, Carl Laflamme, Asmaa Sina, Marie-Paule Lachambre and Richard Béliveau

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:8

    Content type: Research

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  19. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been regarded as a potent trophic factor for motor neurons. However, recent studies have shown that CNTF exerts effects on glial cells as well as neurons. For instance, C...

    Authors: Hsiao-Wen Lin, Mohit Raja Jain, Hong Li and Steven W Levison

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:7

    Content type: Research

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  20. Polymorphisms in the MHC class 1-like gene known as HFE have been proposed as genetic modifiers of neurodegenerative diseases that include neuroinflammation as part of the disease process. Variants of HFE are rel...

    Authors: Ryan M Mitchell, Sang Y Lee, William T Randazzo, Zachary Simmons and James R Connor

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:6

    Content type: Research

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  21. The EP1 receptor for the prostanoid PGE2 is a G-protein coupled receptor that has been shown to contribute to excitotoxic neuronal death. In this study we examined the influence of non-neuronal cells on neurop...

    Authors: Noel G Carlson, Monica A Rojas, John-David Black, Jonathan W Redd, John Hille, Kenneth E Hill and John W Rose

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:5

    Content type: Research

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  22. Cytokines secreted by immune cells and activated glia play central roles in both the pathogenesis of and protection from damage to the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Authors: Robert P Lisak, Joyce A Benjamins, Beverly Bealmear, Liljana Nedelkoska, Diane Studzinski, Ernest Retland, Bin Yao and Susan Land

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:4

    Content type: Research

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  23. This is a critical review of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL). Most prior reviews focus on the aPL syndrome (APS), a thrombotic condition often marked by neurological disturbance. We bring to attention recen...

    Authors: Lawrence L Horstman, Wenche Jy, Carlos J Bidot, Yeon S Ahn, Roger E Kelley, Robert Zivadinov, Amir H Maghzi, Masoud Etemadifar, Seyed Ali Mousavi and Alireza Minagar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:3

    Content type: Review

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  24. Complement represents a crucial mediator of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury. The role of the terminal complement activation pathway, leading to generation of the membrane a...

    Authors: Philip F Stahel, Michael A Flierl, B Paul Morgan, Ivonne Persigehl, Christiane Stoll, Claudia Conrad, Basel M Touban, Wade R Smith, Kathryn Beauchamp, Oliver I Schmidt, Wolfgang Ertel and Iris Leinhase

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:2

    Content type: Research

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  25. The functions of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 11–13 in central nervous system (CNS) infections are currently unknown. Using a murine model of neurocysticercosis, we investigated the expression and distribution o...

    Authors: Bibhuti B Mishra, Uma Mahesh Gundra and Judy M Teale

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:53

    Content type: Research

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  26. Among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) evaluated in our clinic, there appears to be a subset that can be clinically distinguished from other ASD children because of frequent infections (usually vi...

    Authors: Harumi Jyonouchi, Lee Geng, Agnes Cushing-Ruby and Huma Quraishi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:52

    Content type: Research

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  27. Recently, the term "inflammaging" was coined by Franceshci and colleagues to characterize a widely accepted paradigm that ageing is accompanied by a low-grade chronic up-regulation of certain pro-inflammatory ...

    Authors: Brian Giunta, Francisco Fernandez, William V Nikolic, Demian Obregon, Elona Rrapo, Terrence Town and Jun Tan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:51

    Content type: Review

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  28. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV) infection of the rat brain is associated with microglial activation and damage to certain neuronal populations. Since persistent BDV infection of neurons is nonlytic in vitro, a...

    Authors: Mikhail V Ovanesov, Yavuz Ayhan, Candie Wolbert, Krisztina Moldovan, Christian Sauder and Mikhail V Pletnikov

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:50

    Content type: Research

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  29. Kinins are important mediators of inflammation and act through stimulation of two receptor subtypes, B1 and B2. Leukocyte infiltration contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammation in the central ner...

    Authors: Adriana C Dos Santos, Ester Roffê, Rosa ME Arantes, Luiz Juliano, Jorge L Pesquero, João B Pesquero, Michael Bader, Mauro M Teixeira and Juliana Carvalho-Tavares

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:49

    Content type: Research

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  30. Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences.

    Authors: Gretchen Hermes, James W Ajioka, Krystyna A Kelly, Ernest Mui, Fiona Roberts, Kristen Kasza, Thomas Mayr, Michael J Kirisits, Robert Wollmann, David JP Ferguson, Craig W Roberts, Jong-Hee Hwang, Toria Trendler, Richard P Kennan, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Catherine Reardon…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:48

    Content type: Research

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  31. To determine if chronic elevation of the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), will affect infarct volume or cortical perfusion after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Authors: L Creed Pettigrew, Mark S Kindy, Stephen Scheff, Joe E Springer, Richard J Kryscio, Yizhao Li and David S Grass

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:47

    Content type: Research

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  32. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are expressed by microglia and infiltrating macrophages following ischemic stroke. Whereas IL-1β is primarily neurotoxic in ischemic stroke, TNF-α may...

    Authors: Bettina H Clausen, Kate L Lambertsen, Alicia A Babcock, Thomas H Holm, Frederik Dagnaes-Hansen and Bente Finsen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:46

    Content type: Research

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  33. The periventricular subventricular zone (SVZ) contains stem cells and is an area of active neurogenesis and migration. Since inflammation can reduce neurogenesis, we tested whether Theiler's murine encephalomy...

    Authors: Gwendolyn E Goings, Adriana Greisman, Rachel E James, Leanne KF Abram, Wendy Smith Begolka, Stephen D Miller and Francis G Szele

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:44

    Content type: Research

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  34. Microglia are macrophage-like cells that constantly sense the microenvironment within the central nervous system (CNS). In the event of neuronal stress or injury, microglial cells rapidly react and change thei...

    Authors: Teresa F Pais, Catarina Figueiredo, Rui Peixoto, Maria H Braz and Sukalyan Chatterjee

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:43

    Content type: Research

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  35. New pre-clinical trials in AD mouse models may help to develop novel immunogen-adjuvant configurations with the potential to avoid the adverse responses that occurred during the clinical trials with AN-1792 va...

    Authors: Irina Petrushina, Anahit Ghochikyan, Mikayel Mkrtichyan, Grigor Mamikonyan, Nina Movsesyan, Rodmehr Ajdari, Vitaly Vasilevko, Adrine Karapetyan, Andrew Lees, Michael G Agadjanyan and David H Cribbs

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:42

    Content type: Research

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  36. It is well known that most neurodegenerative diseases are associated with microglia-mediated inflammation. Our previous research demonstrates that the CD40 signaling is critically involved in microglia-related...

    Authors: Kavon Rezai-Zadeh, Jared Ehrhart, Yun Bai, Paul R Sanberg, Paula Bickford, Jun Tan and R Douglas Shytle

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:41

    Content type: Research

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  37. The long latent stage seen in syphilis, followed by chronic central nervous system infection and inflammation, can be explained by the persistence of atypical cystic and granular forms of Treponema pallidum. We i...

    Authors: Judith Miklossy, Sandor Kasas, Anne D Zurn, Sherman McCall, Sheng Yu and Patrick L McGeer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:40

    Content type: Research

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  38. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a frequent complication of preterm delivery. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) released from astrocytes and micro...

    Authors: Stefan A Mann, Beatrix Versmold, Romy Marx, Sabine Stahlhofen, Irmgard D Dietzel, Rolf Heumann and Richard Berger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:39

    Content type: Research

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  39. Septic encephalopathy is a severe brain dysfunction caused by systemic inflammation in the absence of direct brain infection. Changes in cerebral blood flow, release of inflammatory molecules and metabolic alt...

    Authors: Alexander Semmler, Sven Hermann, Florian Mormann, Marc Weberpals, Stephan A Paxian, Thorsten Okulla, Michael Schäfers, Markus P Kummer, Thomas Klockgether and Michael T Heneka

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:38

    Content type: Research

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  40. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extensive loss of neurons in the brain of AD patients. Intracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) has also shown to occur in AD. Neuro-inflammation has...

    Authors: Jae Woong Lee, Yong Kyung Lee, Dong Yeon Yuk, Dong Young Choi, Sang Bae Ban, Ki Wan Oh and Jin Tae Hong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:37

    Content type: Research

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  41. Inflammatory changes are a prominent feature of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activated glial cells release inflammatory cytokines which modulate the neurodegenerative process. These cytokines a...

    Authors: Anastazija Gnjec, Katarzyna J D'Costa, Simon M Laws, Ross Hedley, Kelvin Balakrishnan, Kevin Taddei, Georgia Martins, Athena Paton, Giuseppe Verdile, Samuel E Gandy, G Anthony Broe, William S Brooks, Hayley Bennett, Olivier Piguet, Patricia Price, Judith Miklossy…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:36

    Content type: Research

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  42. An endotoxin insult mimics a severe peripheral infection and recent evidence suggests that a single exposure can cause long-term cognitive deficits. A peripheral injection of LPS results in production of pro-i...

    Authors: Wendy L Thompson, William J Karpus and Linda J Van Eldik

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:35

    Content type: Research

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  43. Hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) can produce widespread neurodegeneration and deep cerebral white matter injury in the neonate. Resident microglia and invading leukocytes promote lesion progression by releasing reactive...

    Authors: Christopher C Leonardo, Autumn K Eakin, Joanne M Ajmo, Lisa A Collier, Keith R Pennypacker, Alex Y Strongin and Paul E Gottschall

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:34

    Content type: Research

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  44. The purinergic receptor P2x7 is expressed on myeloid cells as well as on CNS glial cells, and P2x7 activation has been shown to increase both glial and T-cell activation. These properties suggest a role in the...

    Authors: Anthony J Sharp, Paul E Polak, Vittoria Simonini, Shao X Lin, Jill C Richardson, Ernesto R Bongarzone and Douglas L Feinstein

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:33

    Content type: Research

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