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  1. Multiple sclerosis (MS) involves a misdirected immune attack against myelin in the brain and spinal cord, leading to profound neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. While the mechanisms of disease pathogenes...

    Authors: Juan M. Ilarregui, Gijs Kooij, Ernesto Rodríguez, Susanne M. A. van der Pol, Nathalie Koning, Hakan Kalay, Joost C. van der Horst, Sandra J. van Vliet, Juan J. García-Vallejo, Helga E. de Vries and Yvette van Kooyk

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:130

    Content type: Research

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  2. Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiome composition alterations affect neurodegeneration through neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we evaluate gut microbiota alter...

    Authors: Chin-Hsien Lin, Chieh-Chang Chen, Han-Lin Chiang, Jyh-Ming Liou, Chih-Min Chang, Tzu-Pin Lu, Eric Y. Chuang, Yi-Cheng Tai, Chieh Cheng, Han-Yi Lin and Ming-Shiang Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:129

    Content type: Research

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  3. Synaptic dysfunction, named synaptopathy, due to inflammatory status of the central nervous system (CNS) is a recognized factor potentially underlying both motor and cognitive dysfunctions in neurodegenerative...

    Authors: Vincenzo Giacco, Giulia Panattoni, Manuela Medelin, Elena Bonechi, Alessandra Aldinucci, Clara Ballerini and Laura Ballerini

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:127

    Content type: Research

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  4. Persistent and/or recurrent inflammatory processes are the main factor leading to multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. The composite ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous N-acylethanolamine, combine...

    Authors: Gabriella Contarini, Davide Franceschini, Laura Facci, Massimo Barbierato, Pietro Giusti and Morena Zusso

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:126

    Content type: Research

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  5. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation (SI) is associated with neuroinflammation in the brain, hypotension, tachycardia, and multiple organs dysfunctions. Considering that during SI these impor...

    Authors: Mateus R. Amorim, Júnia L. de Deus, Rafael A. Cazuza, Clarissa M. D. Mota, Luiz E. V. da Silva, Gabriela S. Borges, Marcelo E. Batalhão, Evelin C. Cárnio and Luiz G. S. Branco

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:125

    Content type: Research

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  6. Spinal cord injury (SCI) usually causes a devastating lifelong disability for patients. After a traumatic lesion, disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier induces the infiltration of macrophages into the le...

    Authors: Judith Sánchez-Ventura, Jesús Amo-Aparicio, Xavier Navarro and Clara Penas

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:124

    Content type: Research

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  7. Astrocyte activation is a common pathological feature in many brain diseases with neuroinflammation, and revealing the underlying mechanisms might shed light on the regulatory processes of the diseases. Recent...

    Authors: Chia-Chi Hung, Yi-Hsuan Lee, Yi-Min Kuo, Pei-Chien Hsu, Huey-Jen Tsay, Ying-Ting Hsu, Chih-Chin Lee, Jia-Jun Liang and Feng-Shiun Shie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:123

    Content type: Research

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  8. Germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is associated with cerebro-cerebellar damage in very preterm infants, leading to neurodevelopmental impairment. Penetration, from the intraventricular space...

    Authors: Olga Romantsik, Alex Adusei Agyemang, Snjolaug Sveinsdóttir, Sigurbjörg Rutardóttir, Bo Holmqvist, Magnus Cinthio, Mattias Mörgelin, Gulcin Gumus, Helena Karlsson, Stefan R. Hansson, Bo Åkerström, David Ley and Magnus Gram

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:122

    Content type: Research

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  9. The NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor [NLR] family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome is a member of the NLR family of innate immune cell sensors. These are crucial regulators...

    Authors: Pu Hong, Ruo-Nan Gu, Feng-Xian Li, Xiao-Xing Xiong, Wen-Bin Liang, Zhi-Jian You and Hong-Fei Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:121

    Content type: Review

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  10. After the publication of the original article [1], it came to the authors’ attention that there was an error in the originally published version of Fig. 5b. The image of CD4+CD25+ T cells of the statin-Dex group ...

    Authors: Xiao-Li Li, Heng Li, Min Zhang, Hua Xu, Long-Tao Yue, Xin-Xin Zhang, Shan Wang, Cong-Cong Wang, Yan-Bin Li, Ying-Chun Dou and Rui-Sheng Duan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:119

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2016 13:8

  11. Microglia and inflammation have context-specific impacts upon neuronal survival in different models of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Herein, we investigate how inflammatory mediators, including microgl...

    Authors: Levi Todd, Isabella Palazzo, Lilianna Suarez, Xiaoyu Liu, Leo Volkov, Thanh V. Hoang, Warren A. Campbell, Seth Blackshaw, Ning Quan and Andy J. Fischer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:118

    Content type: Research

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  12. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO) is responsible for the progression of the kynurenine pathway. This pathway has been implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced depression in which convention...

    Authors: Sara Hemmati, Mohammad Amin Sadeghi, Razieh Mohammad Jafari, Hasan Yousefi-Manesh and Ahmad Reza Dehpour

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:117

    Content type: Research

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  13. Microglia and CNS-infiltrating monocytes/macrophages (CNS-MPs) perform pro-inflammatory and protective anti-inflammatory functions following ischemic stroke. Selective inhibition of pro-inflammatory responses ...

    Authors: Tianwen Gao, Syed Ali Raza, Supriya Ramesha, Ngozi V. Nwabueze, Amelia J. Tomkins, Lihong Cheng, Hailian Xiao, Manuel Yepes and Srikant Rangaraju

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:116

    Content type: Research

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  14. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in the USA and the world; it constitutes 30% of injury-related deaths (Taylor et al., MMWR Surveill Summ 66:1-16, 2017). Contact sports ath...

    Authors: Mahasweta Das, Xiaolan Tang, Jung Yeon Han, Karthick Mayilsamy, Elspeth Foran, Manas R. Biswal, Radouil Tzekov, Shyam S. Mohapatra and Subhra Mohapatra

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:115

    Content type: Research

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  15. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious birth complication with high incidence in both advanced and developing countries. Children surviving from HIE often have severe long-term sequela including ce...

    Authors: Xing-Liang Yang, Xin Wang, Lin Shao, Guang-Tong Jiang, Jia-Wei Min, Xi-Yu Mei, Xiao-Hua He, Wan-Hong Liu, Wen-Xian Huang and Bi-Wen Peng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:114

    Content type: Research

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  16. The cellular and molecular pathophysiological mecha\nisms of pain processing in neglected parasitic infections such as leishmaniasis remain unknown. The present study evaluated the participation of spinal cord...

    Authors: Sergio M. Borghi, Victor Fattori, Felipe A. Pinho-Ribeiro, Talita P. Domiciano, Milena M. Miranda-Sapla, Tiago H. Zaninelli, Rubia Casagrande, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Wander R. Pavanelli, Jose C. Alves-Filho, Fernando Q. Cunha, Thiago M. Cunha and Waldiceu A. Verri Jr

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:113

    Content type: Research

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  17. Ischemic stroke provokes a neuroinflammatory response and simultaneously promotes release of epinephrine and norepinephrine by the sympathetic nervous system. This increased sympathetic outflow can act on β2-a...

    Authors: Kendra J. Lechtenberg, Scott T. Meyer, Janelle B. Doyle, Todd C. Peterson and Marion S. Buckwalter

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:112

    Content type: Research

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  18. In a subgroup of patients suffering from progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), which is an inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), B cell aggregates were discovered ...

    Authors: Verena Schropp, Jörn Rohde, Damiano M. Rovituso, Samir Jabari, Richa Bharti and Stefanie Kuerten

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:111

    Content type: Research

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  19. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is important in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Extracellular deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ), a major pathological hallmark of AD, can induce microglia activation. Adi...

    Authors: Min Jian, Jason Shing-Cheong Kwan, Myriam Bunting, Roy Chun-Laam Ng and Koon Ho Chan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:110

    Content type: Research

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  20. The mechanisms driving multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults, remain unknown despite extensive research. Especially puzzling are the underlying molecular pr...

    Authors: Krista D. DiSano, Michael R. Linzey, Darlene B. Royce, Andrew R. Pachner and Francesca Gilli

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:109

    Content type: Research

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  21. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease whose various pathophysiological aspects are still being investigated. Recently, it has been hypothesized that AD may be associated with a dysbiosis of m...

    Authors: Francesco Angelucci, Katerina Cechova, Jana Amlerova and Jakub Hort

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:108

    Content type: Review

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  22. Numerous studies have identified the proinflammatory, pronociceptive effects of morphine which ultimately exacerbate pain. Our novel endomorphin analog ZH853 does not produce proinflammatory effects on its own...

    Authors: Amy K. Feehan and James E. Zadina

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:100

    Content type: Research

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  23. Mast cells (MCs) in the brain can respond to environmental cues and relay signals to neurons that may directly influence neuronal electrical activity, calcium signaling, and neurotransmission. MCs also express...

    Authors: Juan Antonio Flores, María Pilar Ramírez-Ponce, María Ángeles Montes, Santiago Balseiro-Gómez, Jorge Acosta, Guillermo Álvarez de Toledo and Eva Alés

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:107

    Content type: Research

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  24. Systemic inflammation has been linked to synapse loss and cognitive decline in human patients and animal models. A role for microglial release of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been proposed based on in vivo a...

    Authors: Olivia Sheppard, Michael P. Coleman and Claire S. Durrant

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:106

    Content type: Research

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  25. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the cause of a highly lethal form of meningitis in humans. Microglial cells in the brain represent the first line of defense against pathogens, and they participate in the inflammatory...

    Authors: Sabrina Hupp, Denis Grandgirard, Timothy J. Mitchell, Stephen L. Leib, Lucy J. Hathaway and Asparouh I. Iliev

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:105

    Content type: Research

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  26. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) during the perinatal period is one of the most common causes of acute mortality and chronic neurologic morbidity. Hydrogen-rich saline (HS) treatment in neonatal mice has been reported to...

    Authors: Xili Chu, Lili Cao, Zhuoya Yu, Danqing Xin, Tingting Li, Weiwei Ma, Xin Zhou, Wenqiang Chen, Dexiang Liu and Zhen Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:104

    Content type: Review

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  27. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic dysfunction characterized by progressive insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is a critical neurovascul...

    Authors: Qiuchen Zhao, Fang Zhang, Zhanyang Yu, Shuzhen Guo, Ning Liu, Yinghua Jiang, Eng H. Lo, Yun Xu and Xiaoying Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:103

    Content type: Research

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  28. Fatigue is a common and sometimes debilitating phenomenon in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) and other chronic inflammatory diseases. We aimed to investigate how IL-1 β-related molecules and the neuropeptide ...

    Authors: Kjetil Bårdsen, Cato Brede, Ingeborg Kvivik, Jan Terje Kvaløy, Kristin Jonsdottir, Anne Bolette Tjensvoll, Peter Ruoff and Roald Omdal

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:102

    Content type: Research

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  29. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuroinflammation are considered key mechanisms of pathogenic Escherichia coli invasion of the brain. However, the specific molecules involved in meningitic E. coli-induce...

    Authors: Rui-Cheng Yang, Xin-Yi Qu, Si-Yu Xiao, Liang Li, Bo-Jie Xu, Ji-Yang Fu, Yu-Jin Lv, Nouman Amjad, Chen Tan, Kwang Sik Kim, Huan-Chun Chen and Xiang-Ru Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:101

    Content type: Research

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  30. Osteopontin (OPN, SPP1) is upregulated in response to acute brain injury, and based on its immunoreactivity, two distinct forms have been identified: intracellular OPN within brain macrophages and small granul...

    Authors: Tae-Ryong Riew, Soojin Kim, Xuyan Jin, Hong Lim Kim, Jeong-Hwa Lee and Mun-Yong Lee

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:99

    Content type: Research

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  31. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA and other developed countries worldwide. Following the initial mechanical insult, the brain’s primary innate immune eff...

    Authors: Josh M. Morganti, Danielle S. Goulding and Linda J. Van Eldik

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:98

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  32. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory gastrointestinal disease primarily affecting preterm neonates. Neonates with NEC suffer from a degree of neurodevelopmental delay that is not explained by pre...

    Authors: George Biouss, Lina Antounians, Bo Li, Joshua S. O’Connell, Shogo Seo, Vincenzo D. Catania, Jennifer Guadagno, Abidur Rahman, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Nataliia Svergun, Agostino Pierro and Augusto Zani

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:97

    Content type: Research

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  33. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating medical emergency with high mortality and severe neurological deficit. ICH-related poor outcomes are due to a combination of pathological processes that could be...

    Authors: Yongkang Fang, Yeye Tian, Qibao Huang, Yue Wan, Li Xu, Wei Wang, Dengji Pan, Suiqiang Zhu and Minjie Xie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:96

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Baicalin, which is isolated from Radix Scutellariae, possesses strong biological activities including an anti-inflammation property. Recent studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory effect of baicalin is link...

    Authors: Li-Ting Guo, Si-Qi Wang, Jing Su, Li-Xing Xu, Zhou-Ye Ji, Ru-Yi Zhang, Qin-Wen Zhao, Zhan-Qiang Ma, Xue-Yang Deng and Shi-Ping Ma

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:95

    Content type: Research

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  35. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. There is increasing evidence that PD pathology is accompanied by an inflammatory response. Thi...

    Authors: Caroline Perner, Florian Perner, Nayana Gaur, Silke Zimmermann, Otto W. Witte, Florian H. Heidel, Julian Grosskreutz and Tino Prell

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:94

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Published on:

  36. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been explored previously as a treatment method for spinal cord injury (SCI) due to its ability to attenuate pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduce apopt...

    Authors: Daniel J. Hellenbrand, Kaitlyn A. Reichl, Benjamin J. Travis, Mallory E. Filipp, Andrew S. Khalil, Domenic J. Pulito, Ashley V. Gavigan, Elizabeth R. Maginot, Mitchell T. Arnold, Alexander G. Adler, William L. Murphy and Amgad S. Hanna

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:93

    Content type: Research

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  37. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are considered the major central events in the process of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nrf2 is a key regulator of endogenous defense systems. New finds have contacted activa...

    Authors: Bei Zhang, Guoqing Wang, Jingyi He, Qiuyu Yang, Daidi Li, Jingjie Li and Feng Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:92

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. During excitotoxic damage, neuronal death results from the increase in intracellular calcium, the induction of oxidative stress, and a subsequent inflammatory response. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are relevant source...

    Authors: Diego Rolando Hernández-Espinosa, Lourdes Massieu, Teresa Montiel and Julio Morán

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:91

    Content type: Research

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  39. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. After the first episode, patients with remitted MDD have a 60% chance of experiencing a second episode. Consideration of therapy cont...

    Authors: Chun-Hong Liu, Guang-Zhong Zhang, Bin Li, Meng Li, Marie Woelfer, Martin Walter and Lihong Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:90

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  40. Neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutics, including bortezomib. The mechanisms underlying this condition are not fully elucidated even if a contribution of neuroinflammation was sugg...

    Authors: Giorgia Moschetti, Giada Amodeo, Daniela Maftei, Roberta Lattanzi, Patrizia Procacci, Patrizia Sartori, Gianfranco Balboni, Valentina Onnis, Vincenzo Conte, Alberto Panerai, Paola Sacerdote and Silvia Franchi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:89

    Content type: Research

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  41. In humans, a major component of natural killer (NK) and T cell target recognition depends on the surveillance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs).

    Authors: Antonino Tuttolomondo, Domenico Di Raimondo, Rosaria Pecoraro, Alessandra Casuccio, Danilo Di Bona, Anna Aiello, Giulia Accardi, Valentina Arnao, Giuseppe Clemente, Vittoriano Della Corte, Carlo Maida, Irene Simonetta, Calogero Caruso, Rosario Squatrito and Antonio Pinto

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:88

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the deposition of extracellular fibrillar amyloid β (fΑβ) and the intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles. ...

    Authors: Hassan El Hajj, Julie C. Savage, Kanchan Bisht, Martin Parent, Luc Vallières, Serge Rivest and Marie-Ève Tremblay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:87

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Impairment of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) has been associated with cognitive decline in many CNS diseases, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Recent research suggests an important role...

    Authors: Diana G. Bohannon, Allen Ko, Adam R. Filipowicz, Marcelo J. Kuroda and Woong-Ki Kim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:86

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Astrocytes have been shown to produce several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to maintain homeostasis of microenvironment in response to vast array of CNS insults. Some inflammation-related cytokines are ...

    Authors: Yuxin Zhang, Yue Zhou, Shuxia Chen, Yuming Hu, Zhenjie Zhu, Yingjie Wang, Nan Du, Tiancheng Song, Yumin Yang, Aisong Guo and Yongjun Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:85

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. The G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), broadly expressed in various tissues such as the spinal cord, exerts multiple physiological functions including pain regulation. This study aimed to elucidate the mec...

    Authors: Xiao-Fang Mao, Hai-Yun Wu, Xue-Qi Tang, Usman Ali, Hao Liu and Yong-Xiang Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:84

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Neuropathic pain is a serious clinical problem that needs to be solved urgently. ASK1 is an upstream protein of p38 and JNK which plays important roles in neuroinflammation during the induction and maintenance...

    Authors: Danli Zhou, Siqi Zhang, Liang Hu, Yu-Feng Gu, Yimei Cai, Deqin Wu, Wen-Tao Liu, Chun-Yi Jiang, Xiangqing Kong and Guang-Qin Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:83

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Neuropathic pain is caused by sensory nerve injury, but effective treatments are currently lacking. Microglia are activated in the spinal dorsal horn after sensory nerve injury and contribute to neuropathic pa...

    Authors: Akira Sayo, Hiroyuki Konishi, Masaaki Kobayashi, Kuniyuki Kano, Hiroki Kobayashi, Hideharu Hibi, Junken Aoki and Hiroshi Kiyama

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:82

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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