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  1. Alzheimer's disease is the most common dementia in the elderly, and the potential of peripheral biochemical markers as complementary tools in the neuropsychiatric evaluation of these patients has claimed furth...

    Authors: Márcia L Chaves, Ana L Camozzato, Eduardo D Ferreira, Isabel Piazenski, Renata Kochhann, Oscar Dall'Igna, Guilherme S Mazzini, Diogo O Souza and Luis V Portela

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:6

    Content type: Research

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  2. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates interrelated inflammatory and coagulation cascades characterized by wide-spread cellular activation, induction of leukocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules and re...

    Authors: Shawn G Rhind, Naomi T Crnko, Andrew J Baker, Laurie J Morrison, Pang N Shek, Sandro Scarpelini and Sandro B Rizoli

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:5

    Content type: Research

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  3. Small-conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels are expressed in the CNS, where KCNN2/SK2/KCa2.2 and KCNN3/SK3/KCa2.3 help shape the electrical activity of some neurons. The SK3 channel is considered a potential the...

    Authors: Lyanne C Schlichter, Vikas Kaushal, Iska Moxon-Emre, Vishanthan Sivagnanam and Catherine Vincent

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:4

    Content type: Research

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  4. Luteolin, a plant derived flavonoid, exerts a variety of pharmacological activities and anti-oxidant properties associated with its capacity to scavenge oxygen and nitrogen species. Luteolin also shows potent ...

    Authors: Konstantin Dirscherl, Marcus Karlstetter, Stefanie Ebert, Dominik Kraus, Julia Hlawatsch, Yana Walczak, Christoph Moehle, Rudolf Fuchshofer and Thomas Langmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:3

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:118

  5. Recent studies suggest an important role for neurotransmitters as modulators of inflammation. Neuroinflammatory mediators such as cytokines and molecules of the arachidonic acid pathway are generated and relea...

    Authors: Johannes CM Schlachetzki, Bernd L Fiebich, Elisabeth Haake, Antonio CP de Oliveira, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Michael T Heneka and Michael Hüll

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:2

    Content type: Research

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  6. The chemokine CXCL13 is known to dictate homing and motility of B cells in lymphoid tissue and has been implicated in the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammation. Whether it influences B c...

    Authors: Tobias A Rupprecht, Andreas Plate, Michaela Adam, Manfed Wick, Stefan Kastenbauer, Caroline Schmidt, Matthias Klein, Hans-Walter Pfister and Uwe Koedel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:42

    Content type: Research

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  7. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in several crucial cellular functions, e.g. protein folding and quality control, maintenance of Ca2+ balance, and cholesterol synthesis. Many genetic and environmental i...

    Authors: Antero Salminen, Anu Kauppinen, Tiina Suuronen, Kai Kaarniranta and Johanna Ojala

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:41

    Content type: Review

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  8. Neuroinflammation occurs after seizures and is implicated in epileptogenesis. CCR2 is a chemokine receptor for CCL2 and their interaction mediates monocyte infiltration in the neuroinflammatory cascade trigger...

    Authors: Maira L Foresti, Gabriel M Arisi, Khurshed Katki, Andres Montañez, Russell M Sanchez and Lee A Shapiro

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:40

    Content type: Research

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  9. Transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPC) constitutes a putative therapeutic maneuver for use in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, effects of NPC transplantation in Alzheimer's diseas...

    Authors: Jae K Ryu, Taesup Cho, Yu Tian Wang and James G McLarnon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:39

    Content type: Short report

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  10. To elucidate the presence and potential involvement of brain inflammation and cell death in neurological morbidity and intractable seizures in childhood epilepsy, we quantified cell death, astrocyte proliferat...

    Authors: Jieun Choi, Douglas R Nordli Jr, Tord D Alden, Arthur DiPatri Jr, Linda Laux, Kent Kelley, Joshua Rosenow, Stephan U Schuele, Veena Rajaram and Sookyong Koh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:38

    Content type: Research

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  11. Glucocorticoids have been shown to be effective in the treatment of autoimmune diseases of the CNS such as multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the...

    Authors: Željka Miljković, Miljana Momčilović, Djordje Miljković and Marija Mostarica-Stojković

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:37

    Content type: Research

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  12. The excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) is synthesized through the kynurenine pathway (KP) by activated monocyte lineage cells. QUIN is likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of several major neuroinflammato...

    Authors: Ka Ka Ting, Bruce J Brew and Gilles J Guillemin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:36

    Content type: Research

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  13. A causal role of the complement system in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis has been postulated based on the identification of different activated components up to the membrane attack complex at amyloid plaques...

    Authors: Julia Reichwald, Simone Danner, Karl-Heinz Wiederhold and Matthias Staufenbiel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:35

    Content type: Research

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  14. In the periphery, C5a acts through the G-protein coupled receptor CD88 to enhance/maintain inflammatory responses. In the brain, CD88 can be expressed on astrocytes, microglia and neurons. Previous studies hav...

    Authors: James W Crane, Gilang P Baiquni, Robert KP Sullivan, John D Lee, Pankaj Sah, Stephen M Taylor, Peter G Noakes and Trent M Woodruff

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:34

    Content type: Research

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  15. Autoimmune diseases, like multiple sclerosis, are triggered by uncontrolled activation of cells of the immune system against self-antigen present, for instance, in the central nervous system. We have reported ...

    Authors: Nikolaos Paschalidis, Asif J Iqbal, Francesco Maione, Elisabeth G Wood, Mauro Perretti, Rod J Flower and Fulvio D'Acquisto

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:33

    Content type: Research

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  16. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of preventable death and serious morbidity in young adults. This complex pathological condition is characterized by significant blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage t...

    Authors: Mushfiquddin Khan, Yeong-Bin Im, Anandakumar Shunmugavel, Anne G Gilg, Ramanpreet K Dhindsa, Avtar K Singh and Inderjit Singh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:32

    Content type: Research

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  17. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies reactive with intracellular neuronal proteins have been described in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune disorders. Because neurons have been thought impermeable to immunoglob...

    Authors: Kenneth E Hill, Susan A Clawson, John W Rose, Noel G Carlson and John E Greenlee

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:31

    Content type: Research

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  18. Patients with severe burn injury experience a rapid elevation in multiple circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, with the levels correlating with both injury severity and outcome. Accumulations of these cytok...

    Authors: Joshua W Gatson, David L Maass, James W Simpkins, Ahamed H Idris, Joseph P Minei and Jane G Wigginton

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:30

    Content type: Research

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  19. Multiple sclerosis (MS) remains without an effective treatment in spite of intense research efforts. Interferon-beta (IFN-β) reduces duration and severity of symptoms in many relapsing-remitting MS patients, b...

    Authors: Theoharis C Theoharides

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:29

    Content type: Commentary

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  20. The study is aimed to determine the role of luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), alone and in combination with human interferon-beta (IFN-β), in modulating the immune response(s) of peripheral blood monon...

    Authors: Zohara Sternberg, Kailash Chadha, Alicia Lieberman, Allison Drake, David Hojnacki, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman and Frederick Munschauer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:28

    Content type: Research

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  21. Recently, a novel factor with anorexigenic properties was identified and called nesfatin-1. This protein (82 aac) is not only expressed in peripheral organs but it is also found in neurons located in specific ...

    Authors: Marion S Bonnet, Emilie Pecchi, Jérôme Trouslard, André Jean, Michel Dallaporta and Jean-Denis Troadec

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:27

    Content type: Short report

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  22. Resveratrol, a polyphenol present in grapes and red wine, has been studied due to its vast pharmacological activity. It has been demonstrated that resveratrol inhibits production of inflammatory mediators in d...

    Authors: Lena Wendeburg, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Harsharan S Bhatia, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil and Bernd L Fiebich

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:26

    Content type: Short report

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  23. Although magnesium ions (Mg2+) are known to display many similar features to other 2+ charged cations, they seem to have quite an important and unique role in biological settings, such as NMDA blocking effect. Ho...

    Authors: Takahiro Ushida, Osamu Iwatsu, Kazuhiro Shimo, Tomoko Tetsunaga, Masahiko Ikeuchi, Tatsunori Ikemoto, Young-Chang P Arai, Katsutoshi Suetomi and Makoto Nishihara

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:25

    Content type: Research

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  24. Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) may present as meningitis, cranial neuropathy, acute radiculoneuropathy or, rarely, as encephalomyelitis. We hypothesized that glia, upon exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme dis...

    Authors: Geeta Ramesh, Juan T Borda, Amy Gill, Erin P Ribka, Lisa A Morici, Peter Mottram, Dale S Martin, Mary B Jacobs, Peter J Didier and Mario T Philipp

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:23

    Content type: Research

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  25. Chronic inflammation is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). An interaction associated with the risk of AD has been reported between polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of the genes for the pro-in...

    Authors: Onofre Combarros, Cornelia M van Duijn, Naomi Hammond, Olivia Belbin, Alejandro Arias-Vásquez, Mario Cortina-Borja, Michael G Lehmann, Yurii S Aulchenko, Maaike Schuur, Heike Kölsch, Reinhard Heun, Gordon K Wilcock, Kristelle Brown, Patrick G Kehoe, Rachel Harrison, Eliecer Coto…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:22

    Content type: Research

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  26. In animal models, ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury triggers membrane lipid degradation and accumulation of lipoxidative exacerbations in neurovascular unit, leading to blood brain barrier (BBB) damage and neur...

    Authors: Md Nasrul Hoda, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh and Mushfiquddin Khan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:21

    Content type: Research

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  27. Gadopentate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely applied for the visualization of blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experiment...

    Authors: Eva Tysiak, Patrick Asbach, Orhan Aktas, Helmar Waiczies, Maureen Smyth, Joerg Schnorr, Matthias Taupitz and Jens Wuerfel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. Inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI), exerting either deleterious effects on the progression of tissue damage or beneficial roles during recovery an...

    Authors: Hans H Wei, Xi-Chun M Lu, Deborah A Shear, Anu Waghray, Changping Yao, Frank C Tortella and Jitendra R Dave

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:19

    Content type: Research

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  29. Chronic neuroinflammation is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Inflammation involves the activation of microglia and astrocytes that release high levels of prostaglandins. There is a profound gap in our ...

    Authors: Sha-Ron Pierre, Marijke AM Lemmens and Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:18

    Content type: Research

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  30. Marrow stromal cells (MSC), the non-hematopoietic precursor cells in bone marrow, are being investigated for therapeutic potential in CNS disorders. Although in vitro studies have suggested that MSC may be immuno...

    Authors: Dianne M Camp, David A Loeffler, Diane M Farrah, Jade N Borneman and Peter A LeWitt

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:17

    Content type: Research

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  31. The unique physiology and function of neurons create differences in their cellular physiology, including their regulation of gene expression. We began several years ago exploring the relationships between the ...

    Authors: Xianrong R Mao, Andréa M Moerman-Herzog, Yuzhi Chen and Steven W Barger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:16

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  32. Brain inflammation plays a central role in numerous brain pathologies, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglial cells and astrocytes are the effector cells of neuroinflammation. They can be activated also...

    Authors: Antoinette Defaux, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich, Olivier Braissant, Paul Honegger and Florianne Monnet-Tschudi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:15

    Content type: Research

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  33. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is the founding member of a novel family of inflammatory cytokines that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and its...

    Authors: Jayasri Das Sarma, Bogoljub Ciric, Ryan Marek, Sanjoy Sadhukhan, Michael L Caruso, Jasmine Shafagh, Denise C Fitzgerald, Kenneth S Shindler and AM Rostami

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:14

    Content type: Research

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  34. The kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, bacterial endotoxins and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. In animal models of diabetes, it contributes to pain polyneuropathy. Thi...

    Authors: Sébastien Talbot, Patrick Théberge-Turmel, Dalinda Liazoghli, Jacques Sénécal, Pierrette Gaudreau and Réjean Couture

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:11

    Content type: Research

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  35. Septic shock is a prevalent condition that, when not lethal, often causes disturbances in cognition, mood, and behavior, particularly due to central actions of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). T...

    Authors: Eléonore Beurel and Richard S Jope

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. The CD133(+) stem cell population in recurrent gliomas is associated with clinical features such as therapy resistance, blood-brain barrier disruption and, hence, tumor infiltration. Screening of a large panel...

    Authors: Borhane Annabi, Carl Laflamme, Asmaa Sina, Marie-Paule Lachambre and Richard Béliveau

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:8

    Content type: Research

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  37. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been regarded as a potent trophic factor for motor neurons. However, recent studies have shown that CNTF exerts effects on glial cells as well as neurons. For instance, C...

    Authors: Hsiao-Wen Lin, Mohit Raja Jain, Hong Li and Steven W Levison

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:7

    Content type: Research

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  38. Polymorphisms in the MHC class 1-like gene known as HFE have been proposed as genetic modifiers of neurodegenerative diseases that include neuroinflammation as part of the disease process. Variants of HFE are rel...

    Authors: Ryan M Mitchell, Sang Y Lee, William T Randazzo, Zachary Simmons and James R Connor

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. The EP1 receptor for the prostanoid PGE2 is a G-protein coupled receptor that has been shown to contribute to excitotoxic neuronal death. In this study we examined the influence of non-neuronal cells on neurop...

    Authors: Noel G Carlson, Monica A Rojas, John-David Black, Jonathan W Redd, John Hille, Kenneth E Hill and John W Rose

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:5

    Content type: Research

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  40. Cytokines secreted by immune cells and activated glia play central roles in both the pathogenesis of and protection from damage to the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Authors: Robert P Lisak, Joyce A Benjamins, Beverly Bealmear, Liljana Nedelkoska, Diane Studzinski, Ernest Retland, Bin Yao and Susan Land

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:4

    Content type: Research

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  41. This is a critical review of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL). Most prior reviews focus on the aPL syndrome (APS), a thrombotic condition often marked by neurological disturbance. We bring to attention recen...

    Authors: Lawrence L Horstman, Wenche Jy, Carlos J Bidot, Yeon S Ahn, Roger E Kelley, Robert Zivadinov, Amir H Maghzi, Masoud Etemadifar, Seyed Ali Mousavi and Alireza Minagar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:3

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  42. Complement represents a crucial mediator of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury. The role of the terminal complement activation pathway, leading to generation of the membrane a...

    Authors: Philip F Stahel, Michael A Flierl, B Paul Morgan, Ivonne Persigehl, Christiane Stoll, Claudia Conrad, Basel M Touban, Wade R Smith, Kathryn Beauchamp, Oliver I Schmidt, Wolfgang Ertel and Iris Leinhase

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. The functions of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 11–13 in central nervous system (CNS) infections are currently unknown. Using a murine model of neurocysticercosis, we investigated the expression and distribution o...

    Authors: Bibhuti B Mishra, Uma Mahesh Gundra and Judy M Teale

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:53

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) evaluated in our clinic, there appears to be a subset that can be clinically distinguished from other ASD children because of frequent infections (usually vi...

    Authors: Harumi Jyonouchi, Lee Geng, Agnes Cushing-Ruby and Huma Quraishi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:52

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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