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  1. Microglial-mediated neuroinflammation plays an important role in vascular dementia, and modulating neuroinflammation has emerged as a promising treatment target. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) shows ant...

    Authors: Yao Zhao, Jiawei Zhang, Yaling Zheng, Yaxuan Zhang, Xiao Jie Zhang, Hongmei Wang, Yu Du, Jian Guan, Xiuzhe Wang and Jianliang Fu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:207

    Content type: Research

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  2. Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by loss of function and death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible vision loss. Neuroinflammation is recognized as one of the causes of glauco...

    Authors: Francesca Lazzara, Rosario Amato, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Federica Conti, Tsung-Han Chou, Vittorio Porciatti, Filippo Drago and Claudio Bucolo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:206

    Content type: Research

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  3. Two activation states of reactive astrocytes termed A1 and A2 subtypes emerge at the lesion sites following spinal cord injury (SCI). A1 astrocytes are known to be neurotoxic that participate in neuropathogene...

    Authors: Lilan Li, Yu Li, Bingqiang He, Hui Li, Huiyuan Ji, Yingjie Wang, Zhenjie Zhu, Yuming Hu, Yue Zhou, Ting Yang, Chunshuai Sun, Ying Yuan and Yongjun Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:205

    Content type: Research

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  4. Perioperative neurocognitive disorder (PND) is a long-term postoperative complication in elderly surgical patients. The underlying mechanism of PND is unclear, and no effective therapies are currently availabl...

    Authors: Wenqiang Zuo, Jianshuai Zhao, Jinming Zhang, Zongping Fang, Jiao Deng, Ze Fan, Yaru Guo, Jing Han, Wugang Hou, Hailong Dong, Feifei Xu and Lize Xiong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:204

    Content type: Research

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  5. We have recently showed that atorvastatin (ATO) combined with low dose of dexamethasone (DEX) was more efficacious in treating patients with chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) than ATO monotherapy. This study w...

    Authors: Zhitao Gong, Daqiang Zhan, Meng Nie, Xiaochun Li, Chuang Gao, Xuanhui Liu, Tangtang Xiang, Jiangyuan Yuan, Weiwei Jiang, Jinhao Huang, Wei Quan, Dong Wang, Ye Tian, Hengjie Yuan, Jianning Zhang and Rongcai Jiang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:203

    Content type: Research

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  6. Increasing evidence indicates that dysregulated TNF-α and oxidative stress (OxS) contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Additionally, previous evidence has demonstrated sex differences in many asp...

    Authors: Minghuan Zhu, Zhenjing Liu, Yanhong Guo, Mst. Sadia Sultana, Kang Wu, Xiaoe Lang, Qinyu Lv, Xiao Huang, Zhenghui Yi and Zezhi Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:202

    Content type: Research

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  7. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is mainly an anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) autoantibodies-mediated idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Systemic and local ...

    Authors: Xue Ma, Chuan Qin, Man Chen, Hai-Han Yu, Yun-Hui Chu, Ting-Jun Chen, Dale B. Bosco, Long-Jun Wu, Bi-Tao Bu, Wei Wang and Dai-Shi Tian

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:201

    Content type: Research

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  8. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and pain frequently coexist clinically. Ketamine has analgesic and antidepressant effects, but few studies have evaluated individual differences in antidepressant outcomes ...

    Authors: Yanling Zhou, Chengyu Wang, Xiaofeng Lan, Hanqiu Li, Ziyuan Chao and Yuping Ning

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:200

    Content type: Research

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  9. Patients with chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease frequently experience neurological complications including epilepsy, depression, attention deficit disorders, migraines, and deme...

    Authors: Sarah E. Barnes, Kristy A. Zera, Geoffrey T. Ivison, Marion S. Buckwalter and Edgar G. Engleman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:199

    Content type: Research

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  10. The cortico-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical circuit has been implicated in the emergence of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia (SZ). The kynurenine pathway (KP) has been linked to alterations in glutamatergic an...

    Authors: Amira Ben Afia, Èlia Vila, Karina S. MacDowell, Aida Ormazabal, Juan C. Leza, Josep M. Haro, Rafael Artuch, Belén Ramos and Borja Garcia-Bueno

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:198

    Content type: Research

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  11. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD), and it exerts proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects depending on the M1/M2 polarization phenotype. Hence, promot...

    Authors: Xiaodong Yang, Yi Zhang, Yimeng Chen, Xiaoqin He, Yiwei Qian, Shaoqing Xu, Chao Gao, Chengjun Mo, Shengdi Chen and Qin Xiao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:197

    Content type: Research

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  12. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe traumatic disease which causes high disability and mortality rates. The molecular pathological features after spinal cord injury mainly involve the inflammatory response, m...

    Authors: Yuluo Rong, Chengyue Ji, Zhuanghui Wang, Xuhui Ge, Jiaxing Wang, Wu Ye, Pengyu Tang, Dongdong Jiang, Jin Fan, Guoyong Yin, Wei Liu and Weihua Cai

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:196

    Content type: Research

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  13. Timely endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) significantly improves outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with large vessel occlusion type. However, whether certain central nervous system-specific pl...

    Authors: Chih-Hao Chen, Hai-Jui Chu, Yi-Ting Hwang, Yen-Heng Lin, Chung-Wei Lee, Sung-Chun Tang and Jiann-Shing Jeng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:195

    Content type: Research

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  14. Past experiments studying innate immunity in the central nervous system (CNS) utilized microglia obtained from neonatal mouse brain, which differ developmentally from adult microglia. These differences might i...

    Authors: James A. Carroll, Brent Race, Katie Williams, James F. Striebel and Bruce Chesebro

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:194

    Content type: Research

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  15. The neuroimmune system is required for normal neural processes, including modulation of cognition, emotion, and adaptive behaviors. Aberrant neuroimmune activation is associated with dysregulation of memory an...

    Authors: Caitlin K. Posillico, Rosa E. Garcia-Hernandez and Natalie C. Tronson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:193

    Content type: Research

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  16. Interleukin-6 (IL6) produced in the context of exercise acts in the hypothalamus reducing obesity-associated inflammation and restoring the control of food intake and energy expenditure. In the hippocampus, so...

    Authors: Vanessa C. Bobbo, Daiane F. Engel, Carlos Poblete Jara, Natalia F. Mendes, Roberta Haddad-Tovolli, Thais P. Prado, Davi Sidarta-Oliveira, Joseane Morari, Licio A. Velloso and Eliana P. Araujo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:192

    Content type: Research

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  17. Dynamically altered microglia play an important role in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we found a close association of the metabolic reconfiguration of microglia with increased hippocampal ...

    Authors: Hongyoon Choi, Yoori Choi, Eun Ji Lee, Hyun Kim, Youngsun Lee, Seokjun Kwon, Do Won Hwang and Dong Soo Lee

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:190

    Content type: Research

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  18. Increased systemic and tissue levels of interleukin (IL)-1β are associated with greater risk of impaired neurodevelopment after birth. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that systemic IL-1 receptor antago...

    Authors: Sharmony B. Kelly, Vanesa Stojanovska, Valerie A. Zahra, Alison Moxham, Suzanne L. Miller, Timothy J. M. Moss, Stuart B. Hooper, Marcel F. Nold, Claudia A. Nold-Petry, Justin M. Dean, Laura Bennet, Graeme R. Polglase, Alistair J. Gunn and Robert Galinsky

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:189

    Content type: Research

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  19. Innate immunity can facilitate early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Numerous studies suggest that pyroptosis could exacerbate extracellular immune responses by promoting secretion ...

    Authors: Pengfei Xu, Chunrong Tao, Yuyou Zhu, Guoping Wang, Lingqi Kong, Wenyu Li, Rui Li, Juanji Li, Chao Zhang, Li Wang, Xinfeng Liu, Wen Sun and Wei Hu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:188

    Content type: Research

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  20. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes white matter damage and cognitive impairment, in which astrogliosis is the major pathology. However, underlying cellular mechanisms are not well defined. Activation ...

    Authors: Qian Liu, Mohammad Iqbal H. Bhuiyan, Ruijia Liu, Shanshan Song, Gulnaz Begum, Cullen B. Young, Lesley M. Foley, Fenghua Chen, T. Kevin Hitchens, Guodong Cao, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Li He and Dandan Sun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:187

    Content type: Research

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  21. Several retinal pathologies exhibit both inflammation and breakdown of the inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB) resulting in vascular permeability, suggesting that treatments that trigger resolution of inflammat...

    Authors: Steven F. Abcouwer, Sumathi Shanmugam, Arivalagan Muthusamy, Cheng-mao Lin, Dejuan Kong, Heather Hager, Xuwen Liu and David A. Antonetti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:186

    Content type: Research

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  22. Efforts to understand genetic variability involved in an individual’s susceptibility to chronic pain support a role for upstream regulation by epigenetic mechanisms.

    Authors: Kimberly E. Stephens, Weiqiang Zhou, Zachary Renfro, Zhicheng Ji, Hongkai Ji, Yun Guan and Sean D. Taverna

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:185

    Content type: Research

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  23. White matter injury (WMI) is a major neuropathological event associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). P2X purinoreceptor 4 (P2X4R) is a member of the P2X purine receptor family, which plays a crucial ro...

    Authors: Xiongjie Fu, Guoyang Zhou, Xinyan Wu, Chaoran Xu, Hang Zhou, Jianfeng Zhuang, Yucong Peng, Yang Cao, Hanhai Zeng, Yin Li, Jianru Li, Liansheng Gao, Gao Chen, Lin Wang and Feng Yan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:184

    Content type: Research

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  24. Due to their anti-inflammatory action, corticosteroids are the reference treatment for brain injuries and many inflammatory diseases. However, the benefits of acute corticotherapy are now being questioned, par...

    Authors: Nada El Mahmoudi, Guillaume Rastoldo, Emna Marouane, David Péricat, Isabelle Watabe, Alain Tonetto, Charlotte Hautefort, Christian Chabbert, Francesca Sargolini and Brahim Tighilet

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:183

    Content type: Research

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  25. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine released from activated retinal glial cells in glaucoma. Here...

    Authors: Shuo Cheng, Hong-Ning Wang, Lin-Jie Xu, Fang Li, Yanying Miao, Bo Lei, Xinghuai Sun and Zhongfeng Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:182

    Content type: Research

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  26. Intractable neuropathic pain is a common symptom of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, the underlying mechanism of NMOSD pain remains to be elucidated. In this study, we focused on ATP, w...

    Authors: Teruyuki Ishikura, Makoto Kinoshita, Mikito Shimizu, Yoshiaki Yasumizu, Daisuke Motooka, Daisuke Okuzaki, Kazuya Yamashita, Hisashi Murata, Shohei Beppu, Toru Koda, Satoru Tada, Naoyuki Shiraishi, Yasuko Sugiyama, Katsuichi Miyamoto, Susumu Kusunoki, Tomoyuki Sugimoto…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:181

    Content type: Research

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  27. Exposure to general anesthesia (GA) during the postnatal period is associated with neuroinflammation and long-term neurocognitive impairment in preclinical and clinical settings. Pyroptosis is a novel type of ...

    Authors: Jing Dai, Xue Li, Cai Wang, Shuxin Gu, Lei Dai, Jingyun Zhang, Yunxia Fan and Jing Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:180

    Content type: Research

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  28. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) results in a cascade of inflammatory cell activation with recruitment of peripheral leukocytes to the brain parenchyma and surrounding the hematoma. We hypothesized that in patie...

    Authors: Aaron M. Gusdon, Carol B. Thompson, Kendel Quirk, Yunis M. Mayasi, Radhika Avadhani, Issam A. Awad, Daniel F. Hanley and Wendy C. Ziai

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:179

    Content type: Research

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  29. Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with several neurological complications in adult patients.

    Authors: William Enlow, Maude Bordeleau, Jocelyne Piret, Fernando González Ibáñez, Olus Uyar, Marie-Christine Venable, Nathalie Goyette, Julie Carbonneau, Marie-Eve Tremblay and Guy Boivin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:178

    Content type: Research

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  30. Synucleinopathies are characterized by neurodegeneration and deposition of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein in pathological protein inclusions. Growing evidence suggests the complement system not only has p...

    Authors: Emil Gregersen, Cristine Betzer, Woojin S. Kim, Gergo Kovacs, Lasse Reimer, Glenda M. Halliday, Steffen Thiel and Poul Henning Jensen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:177

    Content type: Research

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  31. Cathepsin H (CatH) is a lysosomal cysteine protease with a unique aminopeptidase activity. Its expression level is increased in activated immune cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, and microglia. We ...

    Authors: Junjun Ni, Juan Zhao, Xinwen Zhang, Thomas Reinheckel, Vito Turk and Hiroshi Nakanishi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:176

    Content type: Research

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  32. Diabetes has been recognized as a risk factor contributing to the incidence and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although several hypotheses suggest a number of different mechanisms underlying the aggr...

    Authors: Osama F. Elabi, João Paulo M. C. M. Cunha, Abderahim Gaceb, Malin Fex and Gesine Paul

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:175

    Content type: Research

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  33. Celastrol (cel) was one of the earliest isolated and identified chemical constituents of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. Based on a cel probe (cel-p) that maintained the bioactivity of the parent compound, the ta...

    Authors: Dan-Dan Liu, Piao Luo, Liwei Gu, Qian Zhang, Peng Gao, Yongping Zhu, Xiao Chen, Qiuyan Guo, Junzhe Zhang, Nan Ma and Jigang Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:174

    Content type: Research

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  34. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of death and disability worldwide. The TLR4-NFκB signaling cascade is the critical pro-inflammatory activation pathway of leukocytes after TBI, and modulatin...

    Authors: Ning Liu, Jinrui Han, Yadan Li, Yinghua Jiang, Samuel X. Shi, Josephine Lok, Michael Whalen, Aaron S. Dumont and Xiaoying Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:173

    Content type: Research

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  35. Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severely disabling disease that leads to loss of sensation, motor, and autonomic function. As exosomes have great potential in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of SCI...

    Authors: Dayu Pan, Yongjin Li, Fuhan Yang, Zenghui Lv, Shibo Zhu, Yixin Shao, Ying Huang, Guangzhi Ning and Shiqing Feng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:172

    Content type: Research

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  36. Anti-inflammatory approaches are emerging as a new strategy for the treatment of depressive disorders. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of Panax ginseng, can inhibit inflammatory cascade and alleviate...

    Authors: Lijuan Zhang, Minmin Tang, Xiaofang Xie, Qiuying Zhao, Nan Hu, Hui He, Gangcai Liu, Shiqi Huang, Cheng Peng, Ying Xiao and Zili You

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:171

    Content type: Research

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  37. Astrocyte over-activation and extensive neuron loss are the main characteristic pathological features of spinal cord ischemia–reperfusion injury (SCII). Prior studies have placed substantial emphasis on the ro...

    Authors: Jingyi Mi, Yang Yang, Hao Yao, Zhirong Huan, Ce Xu, Zhiheng Ren, Wenfu Li, Ying Tang, Rao Fu and Xin Ge

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:170

    Content type: Research

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  38. Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a severe infant or juvenile-onset autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory encephalopathy with an elevated type 1 interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression signatu...

    Authors: Xinfeng Guo, Clayton A. Wiley, Richard A. Steinman, Yi Sheng, Beihong Ji, Junmei Wang, Liyong Zhang, Tony Wang, Mazen Zenatai, Timothy R. Billiar and Qingde Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:169

    Content type: Research

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  39. Following stroke, changes in neuronal connectivity in tissue surrounding the infarct play an important role in both spontaneous recovery of neurological function and in treatment-induced improvements in functi...

    Authors: Wai Ping Yew, Natalia D. Djukic, Jaya S. P. Jayaseelan, Richard J. Woodman, Hakan Muyderman and Neil R. Sims

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:168

    Content type: Research

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  40. Neurological complications are common in patients affected by COVID-19 due to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect brains. While the mechanisms of this process are not fully understood, it has been proposed tha...

    Authors: Silvia Torices, Rosalba Cabrera, Michael Stangis, Oandy Naranjo, Nikolai Fattakhov, Timea Teglas, Daniel Adesse and Michal Toborek

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:167

    Content type: Research

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  41. Differentiating infiltrating myeloid cells from resident microglia in neuroinflammatory disease is challenging, because bone marrow-derived inflammatory monocytes infiltrating the inflamed brain adopt a ‘micro...

    Authors: Alanna G. Spiteri, Rachel L. Terry, Claire L. Wishart, Thomas M. Ashhurst, Iain L. Campbell, Markus J. Hofer and Nicholas J. C. King

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:166

    Content type: Research

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  42. Malignant glioma, especially glioblastoma, is a highly aggressive disease with a dismal prognosis. Vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1) is a critical autophagy-associated protein with roles in oncogenesis and tum...

    Authors: Wanzun Lin, Yun Sun, Xianxin Qiu, Qingting Huang, Lin Kong and Jiade J. Lu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:165

    Content type: Research

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  43. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the principal cause of permanent blindness among elderly individuals worldwide. Chronic inflammation in the subretinal space is associated with a progression of exudat...

    Authors: Kei Takahashi, Shinsuke Nakamura, Wataru Otsu, Masamitsu Shimazawa and Hideaki Hara

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:164

    Content type: Research

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  44. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical mediator of several vascular diseases through positive regulation of proinflammatory pathways. In this study, we defined the role of NLRP3 in both the acute and delayed pha...

    Authors: William S. Dodd, Imaray Noda, Melanie Martinez, Koji Hosaka and Brian L. Hoh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:163

    Content type: Research

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  45. Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) expression in the central nervous system (CNS) increases in response to a variety of stimuli, and CSF1 is overexpressed in many CNS diseases. In young adult mice, we previous...

    Authors: Ishani De, Vilena Maklakova, Suzanne Litscher, Michelle M. Boyd, Lucas C. Klemm, Ziyue Wang, Christina Kendziorski and Lara S. Collier

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:162

    Content type: Research

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  46. The presence of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau is strongly correlated with cognitive decline and neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease and related tauopathies. However, the role of i...

    Authors: Lea L. Weston, Shanya Jiang, Devon Chisholm, Lauren L. Jantzie and Kiran Bhaskar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:161

    Content type: Research

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  47. Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is defined by the rupture of immature blood vessels in the germinal matrix, where subsequent hemorrhage enters the subependymal zone and the cerebral lateral ventricles. The co...

    Authors: Jie Xiao, Tao Cai, Yuanjian Fang, Rui Liu, Jerry J. Flores, Wenna Wang, Ling Gao, Yu Liu, Qin Lu, Lihui Tang, John H. Zhang, Hongwei Lu and Jiping Tang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:160

    Content type: Research

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  48. C1qTNF-related protein 4 (CTRP4) acts in the hypothalamus to modulate food intake in diet-induced obese mice and has been shown to exert an anti-inflammatory effect on macrophages. Since high-fat diet-induced ...

    Authors: Liu Ye, Gongwei Jia, Yuejie Li, Ying Wang, Hong Chen, Lehua Yu and Dandong Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:159

    Content type: Research

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