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Table 1 TGF-β1 is elevated acutely after injury to the brain and chronically in neurodegenerative disease.

From: Modelling neuroinflammatory phenotypes in vivo

Injury/Insult or Disease Species Location/Cell type Timing Reference
Degenerative Disease     
Alzheimer's Disease Human Entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus mRNA; Brain microvessel, Senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, CSF protein Chronic [48, 80, 82-84]
Vascular Dementia Human CSF protein Chronic [84]
Parkinson's Disease Human CSF dopaminergic striatal brain regions, protein Chronic [85, 86]
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Human CSF and serum protein Chronic [87] [88]
Diabetic Neuropathy Human Plasma protein Chronic [89]
Acute Insult     
Transient ischemia Rat Hippocampus/cerebellar protein; Hippocampal mRNA; Microglial mRNA and protein 20 min-12 weeks [90-92] [93, 94]
Permanent ischemia Human; rat; Baboon Increased mRNA in ischemic and penumbral areas 1–15 days [95-98]
Subarachnoid hemorrhage Human CSF protein 1–19 days [99]
Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus Human CSF protein 1–14 days [12, 13, 100]
Spinal cord injury Human Spinal cord mRNA 1–48 h [101]
Triethyltin exposure Mouse Cortical mRNA 6 hrs [102]
Excitotoxic lesion (NMDA) Rat Gray matter surrounding the lesion   [103]
Status epilepticus Rat Hippocampal 1–3 weeks [104]
Kainic acid or deafferentation-induced neurodegeneration Rat Reactive microglia, mRNA   [105, 106]
Spinal cord Contusion Rat Spinal cord mRNA 0.25–10 days [107]
Penetrating brain Injury Rat Perilesional activated glia, meningeal cells, choroid plexus mRNA and protein 1–14 days [108, 109]
Experimentally induced glaucoma Monkey Optic nerve head protein Chronic [110]
Autoimmune Disease     
Multiple Sclerosis Human CSF protein; Mononuclear cells from blood and CSF, mRNA; Serum protein during relapses; Peri-lesional hypertrophic astrocytes, protein Chronic [111-114]
Chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalitis Mouse Spinal cord mRNA Chronic [115]
Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis Rat Spinal cord T-cell, monocyte, and microglia mRNA Acute [116]
Guillan-Barré Syndrome Human Serum and circulating monocyte protein Plateau phase [117, 118]
Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis Rat Macrophage, microglia, meningeal cells, and T-cell infiltrates Acute [116, 119]
Infection     
CMV encephalitis Human/mouse Astrocyte mRNA 5-13d after infection [120]
ME7 scrapie model Mouse Brain mRNA   [121]
Bacterial Meningitis Rat Human CSF cellular mRNA CSF protein Brain mRNA, CSF protein Acute [122-124]
Brain Abscess Human Peri-abscess and abscess extracellular matrix protein Chronic [125]