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  1. Neuroinflammation is thought to be a cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is partly caused by inadequate mitophagy. As a receptor of mitophagy, we aimed to reveal the regulatory roles of optineurin (OPTN) ...

    Authors: Long-Long Cao, Pei-Pei Guan, Shen-Qing Zhang, Yi Yang, Xue-Shi Huang and Pu Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:281

    Content type: Research

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  2. Growing evidence indicates that inflammasome-mediated inflammation plays important roles in the pathophysiology of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Pyroptosis induced by ...

    Authors: Wenjuan Rui, Hong Xiao, Yi Fan, Zhongxuan Ma, Ming Xiao, Sheng Li and Jingping Shi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:280

    Content type: Research

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  3. Opioid analgesics remain widely used for pain treatment despite the related serious side effects. Some of those, such as opioid tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia may be at least partially due to modula...

    Authors: Mario Heles, Petra Mrozkova, Dominika Sulcova, Pavel Adamek, Diana Spicarova and Jiri Palecek

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:279

    Content type: Research

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  4. Diabetic individuals have increased circulating inflammatory mediators which are implicated as underlying causes of neuroinflammation and memory deficits. Tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) ...

    Authors: Eun Ae Jeong, Jaewoong Lee, Hyun Joo Shin, Jong Youl Lee, Kyung Eun Kim, Hyeong Seok An, Deok Ryong Kim, Kyu Yeong Choi, Kun Ho Lee and Gu Seob Roh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:278

    Content type: Research

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  5. Although COVID-19 is a respiratory disease, all organs can be affected including the brain. To date, specific investigations of brain injury markers (BIM) and endothelial injury markers (EIM) have been limited...

    Authors: Jude Savarraj, Eun S. Park, Gabriela D. Colpo, Sarah N. Hinds, Diego Morales, Hilda Ahnstedt, Atzhiry S. Paz, Andres Assing, Fudong Liu, Shivanki Juneja, Eunhee Kim, Sung-min Cho, Aaron M. Gusdon, Pramod Dash, Louise D. McCullough and H. Alex Choi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:277

    Content type: Research

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  6. Microglia are integral mediators of innate immunity within the mammalian central nervous system. Typical microglial responses are transient, intending to restore homeostasis by orchestrating the removal of pat...

    Authors: Erskine Chu, Richelle Mychasiuk, Margaret L. Hibbs and Bridgette D. Semple

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:276

    Content type: Review

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  7. Members of the transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) protein family are widely distributed in the hippocampus of mammals and exert respective and cooperative influences on the functions of neurons. The...

    Authors: Shiji Huo, Jiling Ren, Yunqing Ma, Ahsawle Ozathaley, Wenjian Yuan, Hong Ni, Dong Li and Zhaowei Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:275

    Content type: Research

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  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal multifactorial neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective death of motor neurons. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2α) upregulation and activation...

    Authors: Yafa Fetfet Malada Edelstein, Yulia Solomonov, Nurit Hadad, Leenor Alfahel, Adrian Israelson and Rachel Levy

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:274

    Content type: Research

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  9. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes substantial medical and societal burden with no therapies ameliorating cognitive deficits. Centralized pathologies involving amyloids, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflamma...

    Authors: Avijit Banik, Radhika Amaradhi, Daniel Lee, Michael Sau, Wenyi Wang, Raymond Dingledine and Thota Ganesh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:273

    Content type: Research

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  10. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by pathological deposition of misfolded self-protein amyloid beta (Aβ) which in kind facilitates tau aggregation and neurodege...

    Authors: Jatin Machhi, Pravin Yeapuri, Yaman Lu, Emma Foster, Rupesh Chikhale, Jonathan Herskovitz, Krista L. Namminga, Katherine E. Olson, Mai Mohamed Abdelmoaty, Ju Gao, Rolen M. Quadros, Tomomi Kiyota, Liang Jingjing, Bhavesh D. Kevadiya, Xinglong Wang, Yutong Liu…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:272

    Content type: Research

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  11. Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, is a type of retinal disease characterized by the selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, the pathogenesis of glaucoma has no...

    Authors: Qian Li, Yun Cheng, Shenghai Zhang, Xinghuai Sun and Jihong Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:271

    Content type: Research

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  12. Predisposition to autoimmunity and inflammatory disorders is observed in patients with fragile X-associated syndromes. These patients have increased numbers of CGG triplets in the 5’ UTR region of FMR1 (Fragile X...

    Authors: Scott Thomas, Odessa-Maud Fayet, Frédérique Truffault, Elie Fadel, Bastien Provost, Abderaouf Hamza, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Jean-Paul Bonnefont and Rozen Le Panse

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:270

    Content type: Short report

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  13. Authors: Jia-Liang Chen, Xin Zhou, Bo-Long Liu, Xu-Hong Wei, Hong-Lu Ding, Zhi-Jun Lin, Hai-Lun Zhan, Fei Yang, Wen-Biao Li, Jun-Cong Xie, Min-Zhi Su, Xian-Guo Liu and Xiang-Fu Zhou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:269

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:99

  14. Microglial polarization toward pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype are major contributors to the development of perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PNDs). Metabolic reprogramming plays an important role in regul...

    Authors: Gang Luo, Xiaofeng Wang, Yongchen Cui, Yue Cao, Zhe Zhao and Junfeng Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:267

    Content type: Research

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  15. Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxia–ischemia (HI) is a leading cause of death and disability in term newborns. Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is the only recommended therapy. However, 30% still suffer from ne...

    Authors: Marina Seitz, Christian Köster, Mark Dzietko, Hemmen Sabir, Meray Serdar, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Ivo Bendix and Josephine Herz

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:266

    Content type: Research

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  16. Lymphocytes have dichotomous functions in ischemic stroke. Regulatory T cells are protective, while IL-17A from innate lymphocytes promotes the infarct growth. With recent advances of T cell-subtype specific t...

    Authors: Marius Piepke, Bettina H. Clausen, Peter Ludewig, Jonas H. Vienhues, Tanja Bedke, Ehsan Javidi, Björn Rissiek, Larissa Jank, Leonie Brockmann, Inga Sandrock, Karoline Degenhardt, Alina Jander, Vanessa Roth, Ines S. Schädlich, Immo Prinz, Richard A. Flavell…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:265

    Content type: Research

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  17. This article presents the first detailed analysis of the prevalence and disability burden of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) from 1990 to 2019 by cause, age, sex, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) in 204 countri...

    Authors: Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Ali-Asghar Kolahi, Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi, Piergiorgio Lochner, Francesco Brigo, Andrea Naldi, Paola Lanteri, Sergio Garbarino, Mark J. M. Sullman, Haijiang Dai, Jianhong Wu, Jude Dzevela Kong, Haitham Jahrami, Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi and Saeid Safiri

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:264

    Content type: Research

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  18. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is established to drive pathological sequelae in organ systems outside the intestine, including the central nervous system (CNS). Many patients exhibit cognitive deficits, part...

    Authors: Sarah Talley, Rasa Valiauga, Lillian Anderson, Abigail R. Cannon, Mashkoor A. Choudhry and Edward M. Campbell

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:263

    Content type: Research

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  19. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, (NCLs or Batten disease) are a group of inherited, early onset, fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with mutations in 13 genes. All forms of the disease are characterize...

    Authors: Miriam S. Domowicz, Wen-Ching Chan, Patricia Claudio-Vázquez, Tatiana Gonzalez and Nancy B. Schwartz

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:262

    Content type: Research

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  20. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of macrophage polarization on the expression of oxytocin (OT) and the oxytocin receptor (OTR) in enteric neurons.

    Authors: Yao Shi, Shuang Li, Haojie Zhang, Jianchun Zhu, Tongtong Che, Bing Yan, Jingxin Li and Chuanyong Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:261

    Content type: Research

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  21. Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an inflammatory brain disease which is frequently associated with antibodies (Abs) against cell-surface, synaptic or intracellular neuronal proteins. There is increasing evidenc...

    Authors: Fatme Seval Ismail, Sven G. Meuth and Nico Melzer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:260

    Content type: Hypothesis

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  22. Several lines of evidence support a role of the immune system in headache pathogenesis, with particular regard to migraine. Firstly, alterations in cytokine profile and in lymphocyte subsets have been reported...

    Authors: Leonardo Biscetti, Gioacchino De Vanna, Elena Cresta, Ilenia Corbelli, Lorenzo Gaetani, Letizia Cupini, Paolo Calabresi and Paola Sarchielli

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:259

    Content type: Review

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  23. Activation of the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome and impaired autophagosome clearance in neurons contribute significantly to cardiac arrest and return of spontaneous circulation (CA-ROSC) injury, whi...

    Authors: Rongjiao Shao, Xintao Wang, Tianhua Xu, Yiyang Xia and Derong Cui

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:257

    Content type: Research

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  24. Neurotoxic microglia and astrocytes begin to activate and participate in pathological processes after spinal cord injury (SCI), subsequently causing severe secondary damage and affecting tissue repair. We have...

    Authors: Xuankang Wang, Xin Li, Xiaoshuang Zuo, Zhuowen Liang, Tan Ding, Kun Li, Yangguang Ma, Penghui Li, Zhijie Zhu, Cheng Ju, Zhihao Zhang, Zhiwen Song, Huilin Quan, Jiawei Zhang, Xueyu Hu and Zhe Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:256

    Content type: Research

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  25. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease driven by sustained inflammation in the central nervous system. One of the pathological hallmarks of MS is extensive free radical production. However, th...

    Authors: Jan Spaas, Wouter M. A. Franssen, Charly Keytsman, Laura Blancquaert, Tim Vanmierlo, Jeroen Bogie, Bieke Broux, Niels Hellings, Jack van Horssen, Dheeraj Kumar Posa, David Hoetker, Shahid P. Baba, Wim Derave and Bert O. Eijnde

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:255

    Content type: Research

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  26. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) can not only lead to depression-like behavior but also change the composition of the gut microbiome. Regulating the gut microbiome can have an antidepressant effect, bu...

    Authors: Haonan Li, Yujiao Xiang, Zemeng Zhu, Wei Wang, Zhijun Jiang, Mingyue Zhao, Shuyue Cheng, Fang Pan, Dexiang Liu, Roger C. M. Ho and Cyrus S. H. Ho

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:254

    Content type: Research

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  27. Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis is a destructive central nervous system (CNS) infection with acute and long-term neurological disorders. Previous studies suggest that p75NTR signaling influences cell survival...

    Authors: Dandan Zhang, Shengnan Zhao, Zhijie Zhang, Danfeng Xu, Di Lian, Jing Wu, Dake He, Kun Sun and Ling Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:253

    Content type: Research

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  28. Astrocytes participate in the local innate immune response of the central nervous system. In response to stress such as ischemia, activated cells release endogenous factors known as damage-associated molecular...

    Authors: Silvia Fischer, Emil Nasyrov, Monika Brosien, Klaus T. Preissner, Hugo H. Marti and Reiner Kunze

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:252

    Content type: Research

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  29. Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory neuropathy with a heterogeneous presentation. Although some evidences support the role of autoantibodies in its pathogenesis, the target antigens remain u...

    Authors: Cinta Lleixà, Lorena Martín-Aguilar, Elba Pascual-Goñi, Teresa Franco, Marta Caballero, Noemí de Luna, Eduard Gallardo, Xavier Suárez-Calvet, Laura Martínez-Martínez, Jordi Diaz-Manera, Ricard Rojas-García, Elena Cortés-Vicente, Joana Turón, Carlos Casasnovas, Christian Homedes, Gerardo Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:251

    Content type: Research

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  30. The dysregulation of peripheral immunity in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) includes changes in both the relative numbers and gene expression of T cells. The presence of peripheral T-cell abnormalities in PD is well-...

    Authors: Divisha Bhatia, Veselin Grozdanov, Wolfgang P. Ruf, Jan Kassubek, Albert C. Ludolph, Jochen H. Weishaupt and Karin M. Danzer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:250

    Content type: Short report

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  31. Many neurological diseases involve neuroinflammation, during which overproduction of cytokines by immune cells, especially microglia, can aggregate neuronal death. Ferroptosis is a recently discovered cell met...

    Authors: Yu Cui, Zhaolong Zhang, Xin Zhou, Zhiyuan Zhao, Rui Zhao, Xiangyu Xu, Xiangyi Kong, Jinyang Ren, Xujin Yao, Qian Wen, Feifei Guo, Shengli Gao, Jiangdong Sun and Qi Wan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:249

    Content type: Research

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  32. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), are relatively common and devastating neurological disorders. For example, there are 6 ...

    Authors: Nicholas R. W. Cleland, Saif I. Al-Juboori, Evgenia Dobrinskikh and Kimberley D. Bruce

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:248

    Content type: Review

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  33. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is frequently implicated as a precipitant of delirium, which refers to an acute confusional state that is associated with high mortality, increased length of stay, and long-term c...

    Authors: Mohammad Harun Rashid, Nicklaus A. Sparrow, Faizan Anwar, Gena Guidry, Ambart E. Covarrubias, Haoming Pang, Chandrakumar Bogguri, S. Ananth Karumanchi and Shouri Lahiri

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:247

    Content type: Research

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  34. Cognitive deficits are common in patients with sepsis. Previous studies in sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) implicated the C-X-C chemokine receptor type (CXCR) 5. The present study used a mouse model of ...

    Authors: Yanan Shen, Yuan Zhang, Jiayue Du, Baochun Jiang, Tao Shan, Haojia Li, Hongguang Bao and Yanna Si

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:246

    Content type: Research

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  35. Approximately 30% of individuals with severe SARS-CoV-2 infections also develop neurological and psychiatric complaints. In rare cases, the occurrence of autoimmune encephalitis has been reported after SARS-Co...

    Authors: Veronika Vasilevska, Paul C. Guest, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Matthias L. Schroeter, Christian Geis and Johann Steiner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:245

    Content type: Review

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  36. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common concomitant disease of late-onset myasthenia gravis (MG). However, the impacts of DM on the progression of late-onset MG were unclear.

    Authors: Peng Zhang, Chun-Lin Yang, Tong Du, Yu-Dong Liu, Meng-Ru Ge, Heng Li, Ru-Tao Liu, Cong-Cong Wang, Ying-Chun Dou and Rui-Sheng Duan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:244

    Content type: Research

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  37. Neuroinflammation occupies a pivotal position in the pathogenesis of most nervous system diseases, including depression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of neuroinflammation associated with neuron...

    Authors: Tian Lan, Ye Li, Cuiqin Fan, Liyan Wang, Wenjing Wang, Shihong Chen and Shu Yan Yu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:243

    Content type: Research

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  38. Chorioamnionitis (CHORIO) is a principal risk factor for preterm birth and is the most common pathological abnormality found in the placentae of preterm infants. CHORIO has a multitude of effects on the matern...

    Authors: Yuma Kitase, Eric M. Chin, Sindhu Ramachandra, Christopher Burkhardt, Nethra K. Madurai, Colleen Lenz, Alexander H. Hoon Jr, Shenandoah Robinson and Lauren L. Jantzie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:242

    Content type: Research

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  39. Cognitive impairment in the late stage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with the NOD-, LRR and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which plays an important role in neuroinflamm...

    Authors: Si-Wei Tan, Yan Zhao, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Zhi-Zhong Huang, Nan Yang, Dong Liu and Yuan-Guo Zhou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:241

    Content type: Research

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  40. Lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors involved in many physiological functions in the central nervous system. However, the role of the LPARs in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not...

    Authors: Jong Hee Choi, Jinhee Oh, Min Jung Lee, Hyunsu Bae, Seong-Gyu Ko, Seung-Yeol Nah and Ik-Hyun Cho

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:240

    Content type: Research

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  41. Multiple studies have revealed that repeated or long-term exposure to ketamine causes neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death that has been link...

    Authors: Zhiheng Zhang, Hui Bai, Xiangying Ma, Meilun Shen, Rouqian Li, Di Qiu, Siyao Li and Li Gao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:239

    Content type: Research

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  42. Epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs) in Schwann cells (SCs) after injury facilitates them to undergo de- and redifferentiation processes necessary to support various stages of nerve repair. Al...

    Authors: Anjali Yadav, Tzu-Chieh Huang, Szu-Han Chen, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy, Yuan-Yu Hsueh, Shau-Ping Lin, Fu-I Lu, Ya-Hsin Liu and Chia-Ching Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:238

    Content type: Research

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  43. Type I interferons (IFN-I) are key responders to central nervous system infection and injury and are also increased in common neurodegenerative diseases. Their effects are primarily mediated via transcriptiona...

    Authors: Barney Viengkhou, Melanie Y. White, Stuart J. Cordwell, Iain L. Campbell and Markus J. Hofer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:237

    Content type: Research

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  44. Decreased cerebral blood flow and systemic inflammation during heart failure (HF) increase the risk for vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) and Alzheimer disease-related dementia...

    Authors: Christina Hoyer-Kimura, John P. Konhilas, Heidi M. Mansour, Robin Polt, Kristian P. Doyle, Dean Billheimer and Meredith Hay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:236

    Content type: Research

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  45. The ability to track individual immune cells within the central nervous system has revolutionized our understanding of the roles that microglia and monocytes play in synaptic maintenance, plasticity, and neuro...

    Authors: Eric B. Miller, Sarah J. Karlen, Kaitryn E. Ronning and Marie E. Burns

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:235

    Content type: Short report

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  46. Plenty of macrophages are recruited to the injured nerve to play key roles in the immunoreaction and engulf the debris of degenerated axons and myelin during Wallerian degeneration, thus creating a conducive m...

    Authors: Jiawei Xu, Jinkun Wen, Lanya Fu, Liqiang Liao, Ying Zou, Jiaqi Zhang, Junyao Deng, Haowen Zhang, Jingmin Liu, Xianghai Wang, Daming Zuo and Jiasong Guo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:234

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Changes in dopaminergic neural function can be induced by an acute inflammatory state that, by altering the integrity of the neurovasculature, induces neuronal stress, cell death and causes functional deficits...

    Authors: Serena Becchi, Alberto Buson and Bernard W. Balleine

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:233

    Content type: Research

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  48. Brain-resident microglia have a distinct origin compared to macrophages in other organs. Under physiological conditions, microglia are maintained by self-renewal from the local pool, independent of hematopoiet...

    Authors: Xi Feng, Elma S. Frias, Maria S. Paladini, David Chen, Zoe Boosalis, McKenna Becker, Sonali Gupta, Sharon Liu, Nalin Gupta and Susanna Rosi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:232

    Content type: Research

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