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  1. Production of inflammatory mediators by reactive microglial cells in the brain is generally considered the primary mechanism underlying the development of symptoms of sickness in response to systemic inflammat...

    Authors: Elisabeth G. Vichaya, Sajida Malik, Luba Sominsky, Bianca G. Ford, Sarah J. Spencer and Robert Dantzer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:172

    Content type: Research

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  2. Spontaneous functional recovery occurs during the acute phase after stroke onset, but this intrinsic recovery remains limited. Therefore, exploring the mechanism underlying spontaneous recovery and identifying...

    Authors: Hao Sun, Xinran He, Xia Tao, Tingting Hou, Mingming Chen, Meijun He and Hong Liao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:171

    Content type: Research

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  3. The autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects approximately 1% of the global population. RA is characterized with chronic joint inflammation and often associated with chronic pain. The imbalance of ...

    Authors: Shih-Ping Dai, Wei-Shan Hsieh, Chien-Hua Chen, Yueh-Hao Lu, Hsu-Shan Huang, Der-Ming Chang, Shir-Ly Huang and Wei-Hsin Sun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:170

    Content type: Research

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  4. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) increases the mortality of septic patients, but its mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of T lymphocytes, proBDNF, and their inter...

    Authors: Ru-Yi Luo, Cong Luo, Feng Zhong, Wei-Yun Shen, Hui Li, Zhao-Lan Hu and Ru-Ping Dai

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:169

    Content type: Research

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  5. Neuroinflammation is an important host defense response to secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) confers strong neuroprotective e...

    Authors: Shengpan Chen, Jianhua Peng, Prativa Sherchan, Yongjie Ma, Sishi Xiang, Feng Yan, Hao Zhao, Yong Jiang, Ning Wang, John H. Zhang and Hongqi Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:168

    Content type: Research

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  6. Exposure to inflammation during pregnancy can predispose to brain injury in premature infants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prolonged exposure to inflammation on the cerebrovasculature ...

    Authors: Clémence Disdier, Fares Awa, Xiaodi Chen, Simerdeep K. Dhillon, Robert Galinsky, Joanne O. Davidson, Christopher A. Lear, Laura Bennet, Alistair J. Gunn and Barbara S. Stonestreet

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:167

    Content type: Research

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  7. Recently, depression has been identified as a prevalent and severe mental disorder. However, the mechanisms underlying the depression risk remain elusive. The neuroinflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome activatio...

    Authors: Hetao Bian, Gaohua Wang, Junjie Huang, Liang Liang, Yage Zheng, Yanyan Wei, Hui Wang, Ling Xiao and Huiling Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:166

    Content type: Research

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  8. Neuroinflammation is closely associated with the poor prognosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. This study was aimed to determine the role of stimulator of IFN genes (STING), an essential regulator ...

    Authors: Yucong Peng, Jianfeng Zhuang, Guangyu Ying, Hanhai Zeng, Hang Zhou, Yang Cao, Huaijun Chen, Chaoran Xu, Xiongjie Fu, Hangzhe Xu, Jianru Li, Shenglong Cao, Jingyin Chen, Chi Gu, Feng Yan and Gao Chen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:165

    Content type: Research

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  9. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor that plays a critical role in controlling cell apoptosis in diverse diseases. Previous studies have shown that knocking out FXR improved cardiac function by reduci...

    Authors: Hui-Min Shan, Minhua Zang, Qi Zhang, Ru-Bing Shi, Xiao-Jing Shi, Muyassar Mamtilahun, Chang Liu, Long-long Luo, Xiaoying Tian, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yaohui Tang, Jun Pu and Yongting Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:164

    Content type: Research

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  10. Consecutive peripheral immune challenges can modulate the responses of brain resident microglia to stimuli. High-fat diet (HFD) intake has been reported to stimulate the activation of astrocytes and microglia ...

    Authors: Hui-Ting Huang, Po-See Chen, Yu-Min Kuo and Shun-Fen Tzeng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:163

    Content type: Research

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  11. Complex regional pain syndrome type-I (CRPS-I) is a progressive and devastating pain condition. The mechanisms of CRPS-I still remain poorly understood. We aim to explore expression profiles of genes relevant ...

    Authors: Ruixiang Chen, Chengyu Yin, Qimiao Hu, Boyu Liu, Yan Tai, Xiaoli Zheng, Yuanyuan Li, Jianqiao Fang and Boyi Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:162

    Content type: Research

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  12. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been recently associated with a low risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), yet the basis behind this observation remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed to determine in ...

    Authors: Ana Zabalza, Andrea Vera, Elisenda Alari-Pahissa, Elvira Munteis, Antía Moreira, Jose Yélamos, Mireia Llop, Miguel López-Botet and Jose E. Martínez-Rodríguez

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:161

    Content type: Short report

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  13. Risk of stroke-related morbidity and mortality increases significantly with age. Aging is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation, which is thought to contribute to the poorer outcomes after stroke see...

    Authors: Maria Pilar Blasco, Anjali Chauhan, Pedram Honarpisheh, Hilda Ahnstedt, John d’Aigle, Arunkumar Ganesan, Sriram Ayyaswamy, Frank Blixt, Susan Venable, Angela Major, David Durgan, Anthony Haag, Julia Kofler, Robert Bryan, Louise D. McCullough and Bhanu Priya Ganesh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:160

    Content type: Research

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  14. Cosmic radiation exposures have been found to elicit cognitive impairments involving a wide-range of underlying neuropathology including elevated oxidative stress, neural stem cell loss, and compromised neuron...

    Authors: Barrett D. Allen, Amber R. Syage, Mattia Maroso, Al Anoud D. Baddour, Valerie Luong, Harutyun Minasyan, Erich Giedzinski, Brian L. West, Ivan Soltesz, Charles L. Limoli, Janet E. Baulch and Munjal M. Acharya

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:159

    Content type: Research

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  15. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in pathogenesis of germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) is a member of the neurotrophin family and interacts with the tropomyosin receptor kinase B ...

    Authors: Tianyi Wang, Junyi Zhang, Peng Li, Yan Ding, Jiping Tang, Gang Chen and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:158

    Content type: Research

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  16. Fractalkine (CX3CL1; FKN) is a chemokine expressed by neurons that mediates communication between neurons and microglia. By regulating microglial activity, CX3CL1 can mitigate the damaging effects of chronic m...

    Authors: Aimee N. Winter, Meena S. Subbarayan, Bethany Grimmig, Jason A. Weesner, Lauren Moss, Melinda Peters, Edwin Weeber, Kevin Nash and Paula C. Bickford

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:157

    Content type: Research

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  17. Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes devastating neurological consequences, which can result in partial or total paralysis. Irreversible neurological deficits and glial scar formation are characteristic of SCI. Inf...

    Authors: Jung-Shun Lee, Yu-Hsiang Hsu, Yi-Shu Chiu, I-Ming Jou and Ming-Shi Chang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:156

    Content type: Research

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  18. Interactions between neurons, astrocytes, and microglia critically influence neuroinflammatory responses to insult in the central nervous system. In vitro astrocyte and microglia cultures are powerful tools to...

    Authors: Noah Goshi, Rhianna K. Morgan, Pamela J. Lein and Erkin Seker

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:155

    Content type: Research

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  19. Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Recent evidence has proved that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can inhibit neuropathic pain and possess ...

    Authors: Hao Yang, Lingmin Wu, Huimin Deng, Yuanli Chen, Huanping Zhou, Meiyun Liu, Shaochen Wang, Li Zheng, Lina Zhu and Xin Lv

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:154

    Content type: Research

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  20. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease which results from the invasion of the brain by activated immune cells across the endothelial cells (ECs) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), due to loss of immun...

    Authors: M. H. Sheikh, S. M. Henson, R. A. Loiola, S. Mercurio, A. Colamatteo, G. T. Maniscalco, V. De Rosa, S. McArthur and E. Solito

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:153

    Content type: Research

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  21. Inhibition of inositol-requiring enzyme-1 alpha (IRE1α), one of the sensor signaling proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, has been shown to alleviate brain injury and improve neurologica...

    Authors: Juan Huang, Weitian Lu, Desislava Met Doycheva, Marcin Gamdzyk, Xiao Hu, Rui Liu, John H. Zhang and Jiping Tang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:152

    Content type: Research

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  22. The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess with positron emission tomography (PET) the relationship between levels of inflammation and the loads of aggregated β-amyloid and tau at baseline and again afte...

    Authors: Rola Ismail, Peter Parbo, Lasse Stensvig Madsen, Allan K. Hansen, Kim V. Hansen, Jeppe L. Schaldemose, Pernille L. Kjeldsen, Morten G. Stokholm, Hanne Gottrup, Simon F. Eskildsen and David J. Brooks

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:151

    Content type: Research

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  23. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive treatment for ischemic stroke. Astrocytes regulation has been suggested as one mechanism for rTMS effectiveness. But how rTMS regulates astr...

    Authors: Ye Hong, Qian Liu, Mengna Peng, Maosheng Bai, Juanji Li, Rui Sun, Hongquan Guo, Pengfei Xu, Yi Xie, Yunzi Li, Ling Liu, Juan Du, Xinfeng Liu, Bin Yang and Gelin Xu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:150

    Content type: Research

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  24. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated, chronic inflammatory, and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Several cytokines are thought to be involved in the regulation of MS pathogen...

    Authors: Gloria Donninelli, Inbar Saraf-Sinik, Valentina Mazziotti, Alessia Capone, Maria Grazia Grasso, Luca Battistini, Richard Reynolds, Roberta Magliozzi and Elisabetta Volpe

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:149

    Content type: Research

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  25. The loss of locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC/NE) neurons in the brainstem is reported in multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the mechanisms remain unclear. Stron...

    Authors: Liyan Hou, Xingyue Qu, Xiaofei Qiu, Ruixue Huang, Xiulan Zhao and Qingshan Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:148

    Content type: Research

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  26. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system characterized by severe white matter demyelination. Because of its complex pathogenesis, there is no definite cure for MS. Ex...

    Authors: Ke An, Meng-Jiao Xue, Jia-Ying Zhong, Sheng-Nan Yu, Tian-Shu Lan, Zhong-Quan Qi and Jun-Jie Xia

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:147

    Content type: Research

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  27. Although historically microglia were thought to be immature in the fetal brain, evidence of purposeful interactions between these immune cells and nearby neural progenitors is becoming established. Here, we ex...

    Authors: Candace M. Marsters, Dinushan Nesan, Rena Far, Natalia Klenin, Quentin J. Pittman and Deborah M. Kurrasch

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:146

    Content type: Research

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  28. Only few studies describe the impact of nutritive factors on chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), an inflammatory disease of the peripheral nervous system. The active component of chili pe...

    Authors: Thomas Grüter, Alina Blusch, Jeremias Motte, Melissa Sgodzai, Hussein Bachir, Rafael Klimas, Björn Ambrosius, Ralf Gold, Gisa Ellrichmann and Kalliopi Pitarokoili

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:145

    Content type: Research

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  29. Cardiac arrest survivors suffer from neurological dysfunction including cognitive impairment. Cerebral mast cells, the key regulators of neuroinflammation contribute to neuroinflammation-associated cognitive d...

    Authors: Umut Ocak, Pinar Eser Ocak, Lei Huang, Weilin Xu, Yuchun Zuo, Peng Li, Marcin Gamdzyk, Gang Zuo, Jun Mo, Guangyu Zhang and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:144

    Content type: Research

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  30. The inflammasome adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) is involved in immune signaling by bridging the interactions between inflammasome sensors and caspase-1. Strong experime...

    Authors: Haritha L. Desu, Melanie Plastini, Placido Illiano, Helen M. Bramlett, W. Dalton Dietrich, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari, Roberta Brambilla and Robert W. Keane

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:143

    Content type: Research

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  31. The cornea is innervated with a rich supply of sensory nerves that play important roles in ocular surface health. Any injury or pathology of the corneal nerves increases the risk of dry eye disease and infecti...

    Authors: Mengliang Wu, Laura E. Downie, Liam M. Grover, Richard J. A. Moakes, Saaeha Rauz, Ann Logan, Haihan Jiao, Lisa J. Hill and Holly R. Chinnery

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:142

    Content type: Research

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  32. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) has a high morbidity rate and involves severe neurologic deficits, including cerebral palsy. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to decrease the mortality rate and...

    Authors: Kohki Toriuchi, Hiroki Kakita, Tetsuya Tamura, Satoru Takeshita, Yasumasa Yamada and Mineyoshi Aoyama

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:141

    Content type: Research

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  33. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is rapidly upregulated by inflammation, is a key enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of several inflammatory prostanoids. Successful positron emission tomo...

    Authors: Stal Shrestha, Min-Jeong Kim, Mark Eldridge, Michael L. Lehmann, Michael Frankland, Jeih-San Liow, Zu-Xi Yu, Michelle Cortes-Salva, Sanjay Telu, Ioline D. Henter, Evan Gallagher, Jae-Hoon Lee, J. Megan Fredericks, Chelsie Poffenberger, George Tye, Yanira Ruiz-Perdomo…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:140

    Content type: Research

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  34. Bacterial meningitis and meningoencephalitis are associated with devastating neuroinflammation. We and others have demonstrated the importance of glial cells in the initiation of immune responses to pathogens ...

    Authors: M. Brittany Johnson, Justin R. Halman, Amanda R. Burmeister, Saralynn Currin, Emil F. Khisamutdinov, Kirill A. Afonin and Ian Marriott

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:139

    Content type: Research

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  35. Inflammatory stimuli induce immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) expression that in turn catalyzes the production of itaconate from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Itaconate has recently emerged as a regulator of immu...

    Authors: Ping-Chang Kuo, Wen-Tsan Weng, Barbara A. Scofield, Hallel C. Paraiso, Dennis A. Brown, Pei-Yu Wang, I-Chen Yu and Jui-Hung Yen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:138

    Content type: Research

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  36. Unfortunately, over 40% of stroke victims have pre-existing diabetes which not only increases their risk of stroke up to 2–6 fold, but also worsens both functional recovery and the severity of cognitive impair...

    Authors: Ladonya Jackson, Selin Dumanli, Maribeth H. Johnson, Susan C. Fagan and Adviye Ergul

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:137

    Content type: Research

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  37. Tauopathy in the central nervous system (CNS) is a histopathological hallmark of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although AD is accompanied by various ocular changes, the effects of...

    Authors: Haihan Jiao, Laura E. Downie, Xin Huang, Mengliang Wu, Sara Oberrauch, Ryan J. Keenan, Laura H. Jacobson and Holly R. Chinnery

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:136

    Content type: Research

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  38. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron degeneration in adults, and several mechanisms underlying the disease pathology have been proposed. It has been shown that glia commu...

    Authors: Eleni Christoforidou, Greig Joilin and Majid Hafezparast

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:135

    Content type: Review

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  39. Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) could cause mainly two types of pathological sequelae, the primary mechanical injury, and the secondary injury. The macrophage in SCI are skewed toward the M1 phenotype that migh...

    Authors: Jiahui Zhou, Zhiyue Li, Tianding Wu, Qun Zhao, Qiancheng Zhao and Yong Cao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:134

    Content type: Research

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  40. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the most prevalent causes of cerebrovascular and neurological damage worldwide. To this end, tobacco smoke (TS) has been shown to promote vascular inflammation, neurovascu...

    Authors: Farzane Sivandzade, Faleh Alqahtani, Ali Sifat and Luca Cucullo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:133

    Content type: Research

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  41. The ways in which microglia activate and promote neovascularization (NV) are not fully understood. Recent in vivo evidence supports the theory that calcium is required for the transition of microglia from a su...

    Authors: Madhu Sudhana Saddala, Anton Lennikov, Anthony Mukwaya, Yan Yang, Michael A. Hill, Neil Lagali and Hu Huang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:132

    Content type: Research

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  42. An important hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the increase of Aβ1-42 burden and its accumulation to senile plaques, leading the reactive gliosis and neurodegeneration. The modulation of glia cell functi...

    Authors: Nicole Schröder, Anja Schaffrath, Josua A. Welter, Tim Putzka, Angelika Griep, Patrick Ziegler, Elisa Brandt, Sebastian Samer, Michael T. Heneka, Hannes Kaddatz, Jiangshan Zhan, Eugenia Kipp, Thomas Pufe, Simone C. Tauber, Markus Kipp and Lars-Ove Brandenburg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:131

    Content type: Research

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  43. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating stroke subtype, with a poor prognosis and few proven treatments. Neuroinflammation is associated with ICH-induced brain injury and unfavorable outcomes. T...

    Authors: Yang Xu, Derek Nowrangi, Hui Liang, Tian Wang, Lingyan Yu, Tai Lu, Zhengyang Lu, John H. Zhang, Benyan Luo and Jiping Tang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:130

    Content type: Research

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  44. As subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) has quite a poor outcome despite of an intensive medical care, development of a novel treatment targeting unruptured IAs based on the ...

    Authors: Yu Abekura, Isao Ono, Akitsugu Kawashima, Katsumi Takizawa, Hirokazu Koseki, Haruka Miyata, Kampei Shimizu, Mieko Oka, Mika Kushamae, Susumu Miyamoto, Hiroharu Kataoka, Akira Ishii and Tomohiro Aoki

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:129

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) is classically related to aquaporin (AQP4)-antibodies (Ab) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or more recently to myelin oligodendrocyte glycopr...

    Authors: Elisabeth Maillart, Françoise Durand-Dubief, Céline Louapre, Bertrand Audoin, Bertrand Bourre, Nathalie Derache, Jonathan Ciron, Nicolas Collongues, Jérome de Sèze, Mikael Cohen, Christine Lebrun-Frenay, Nawel Hadhoum, Hélène Zéphir, Romain Deschamps, Clarisse Carra-Dallière, Pierre Labauge…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:128

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. In the extracellular environment, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species are generated via autotaxin (ATX)-mediated hydrolysis of lysophospholipid precursors. Members of the LPA family are potent lipid mediators ...

    Authors: Ioanna Plastira, Eva Bernhart, Lisha Joshi, Chintan N. Koyani, Heimo Strohmaier, Helga Reicher, Ernst Malle and Wolfgang Sattler

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:127

    Content type: Research

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  47. Depression is a common mental disease that mainly manifests as bad mood, decreased interest, pessimism, slow thinking, lack of initiative, poor diet and sleep. Patients with severe depression have suicidal ten...

    Authors: Dongping Li, Ying Wang, Xinrong Jin, Die Hu, Chunlei Xia, Hanmei Xu and Jialiang Hu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:126

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  48. Robust activation of glial cells has been reported to occur particularly during the pathogenesis of bone cancer pain (BCP). Researchers from our group and others have shown that histone deacetylases (HDACs) pl...

    Authors: Xiao-Tao He, Xiao-Fan Hu, Chao Zhu, Kai-Xiang Zhou, Wen-Jun Zhao, Chen Zhang, Xiao Han, Chang-Le Wu, Yan-Yan Wei, Wei Wang, Jian-Ping Deng, Fa-Ming Chen, Ze-Xu Gu and Yu-Lin Dong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:125

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  49. Stroke remains the most cumbersome disease burden in patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). This study aimed to investigate whether ...

    Authors: Chih-Hao Chen, Yu-Wen Cheng, Ya-Fang Chen, Sung-Chun Tang and Jiann-Shing Jeng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:124

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  50. Itch is an unpleasant sensation that can be debilitating, especially if it is chronic and of non-histaminergic origin, as treatment options are limited. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrict...

    Authors: Elín I. Magnúsdóttir, Mirjana Grujic, Jessica Bergman, Gunnar Pejler and Malin C. Lagerström

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:123

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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