Astrocyte and macrophage/microglia in the right cerebral hemisphere. Percentages of macrophage/microglia (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule, 1Iba-1+) and astrocyte (Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)+) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-exposure versus control (Ctl) at 4 h (A) and 48 h (C). (B) Immunofluorescence (IF) staining for Iba-1+ cells in the right fronto-parietal neocortex at 4 h. (D) IF staining for Iba-1+ and GFAP + cells in the right external capsule and fronto-parietal neocortex exposed to LPS plus HI versus Ctl (3 to 4 pups per experimental condition). Scale bar = 50 μm. Mean ± standard error of the mean; analysis of variance with Newman-Keuls post-test, *
P ≤ 0.05, **
P ≤ 0.01, ***
P ≤ 0.001, ****
P ≤ 0.0001. h hour, F-P Fronto-parietal.