Astroglial and macrophage/microglial expression of TNF-α in the right hemisphere exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Mean ± standard error of the mean ratio of Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) + TNF-α + or ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) + TNF-α + double-positive cells on total number of cells after 4 h (A) and 48 h (B). Immunofluorescent (IF) staining of Iba-1+ TNF-α + double-positive (overlap) cells within fronto-parietal neocortex at 4 h (C) and 48 h (D) after LPS + HI versus control (Ctl). IF staining of GFAP + TNF-α + double-positive (overlap) cells within fronto-parietal neocortex at 48 h (E) after LPS + HI versus Ctl (3 to 4 pups per condition). Scale bar = 50 μm. Analysis of variance with Newman-Keuls post-test; *
P ≤ 0.05, ***
P ≤ 0.001, ****
P ≤ 0.0001. h hour, F-P Fronto-parietal, DAPI, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole.