Effects of RA on TNF-
induced HMGB1 and NF-
κB activation. SH-SY5Y cells were pre-incubated with HMGB1 inhibitor, glycyrrhizin (100 μM) or RA (9 μM) for 120 minutes and then incubated with TNF-α (20 ng/ml) for 30 minutes. HMGB1, IκB, phospho-IκB-α and phospho-NF-κB expression were analyzed by Western blotting. RA indicates rosmarinic acid. Results are expressed as fold increase over control, n = 5. *
P <0.05, **
P <0.01 vs. TNF-α-induced group. #
P <0.01 vs. control group. Significance was determined by one-way analysis of ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test.