Neuronal injury in hippocampal CA1 subfield after co-administration of anti-inflammatory drugs against LPS + pilocarpine-induced SE in 2-week-old rats. Treatment with a single anti-inflammatory compound did not diminish the amount of CA1 hippocampal damage as compared to vehicle (left column). A combination treatment of rIL-1ra + CAY resulted in significant reduction of injured neurons which was not seen with any other combination (right column). Outset shows high magnification of eosinophilic neurons with pyknotic nuclei and irregular cell bodies that were counted as injured CA1 cells in the graph. Bars represent mean ± SEM. Quantification shows significant attenuation of neuronal injury resulted from combined administration of rIL-1ra + CAY administered prior to the onset of status (*P <0.05). CAY, COX-2 inhibitor (10 mg/kg); MINO, minocycline; naïve, age-matched normal rat (no seizures, no treatment); rIL-1ra, recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; VEH, vehicle. Scale bar is 50 μm.