CCL2 expression in spinal cord of Astro KO and Endo KO during EAE. Representative z-stack confocal images from spinal cord cryosections of KO mice at d16 EAE are depicted. Cell-specific CCL2-KO mice display loss of CCL2 staining in respective targeted cell types. (a) Astro KO mice show venule-associated CCL2 staining, but lack staining in the parenchymal astrocytes (left). (b) In contrast, Endo KO mice are deficient in vessel-associated CCL2 staining, but maintain astrocyte staining (right). The endothelial boundary is marked with yellow lines. Insets show co-localization of CCL2 with CD31 or GFAP (yellow) in a single z-slice from the respective regions marked by the hatched white boxes, or CCL2 (red) channel alone. Results are representative of 5–7 sections sampled from three mice in each group and two independent experiments.