JEV infection leads to a time-dependent increase in IFN-β luciferase activity in human microglial cells. (A) CHME3 cells were transfected with IFN-β-luciferase promoter plasmid and β-gal promoter plasmid and infected with JEV at MOI 5 for 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. Luciferase activity was measured, normalized and averaged for three independent experiments. (B) CHME3 cells were infected with JEV at MOI 5 for 24 h and total RNA isolated and quantified by real-time PCR for IFN-β1 levels. Fold change of the IFN-β1 mRNA level for three independent experiments was averaged and plotted (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 from control, #
p from 6 h, $
p from 12 h).