B3 significantly reduces lesion volume and diffusion following traumatic brain injury (TBI). (A , B) Representative images of mouse brains 2 days following TBI, isotype control (A) or B3 (B) received 30 minutes post injury, showing extent of hemorrhage. (C, D) Representative quantification of injury volume 2 days following TBI after Nissl 2 staining, with treatment received 1 hour pre-TBI (C) or 30 minutes post-TBI (D); means ± standard error of the mean (SEM), n >7 animals; *P <0.05, **P <0.01 by two-tailed t-test. (E) Representative T2 maps of mouse brain 1 and 7 days following TBI in control animals (isotope) or animals treated with B3 (antibody), both given at 25 mg/kg, 30 minutes post injury, by tail-vein injection. (F) Representative mean diffusivity map following the same protocol. (G) Quantification of infarct volume using T2 maps and (H) mean diffusivity maps in isotype controls (TBI) and B3-treated animals (TBI + lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) antibody). Data are means ± SEM, n = 8 animals; *P <0.05 by t-test.