Effect of paroxetine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated activation of MAPK and NF-κB in BV2 cells. Cells were pretreated with 5 μM paroxetine for 30 minutes followed by the treatment of LPS at 100 ng/mL for 0, 15, 30, 60 or 120 minutes. (A) Representative images of Western blot for the activation of p38, JNK1/2, ERK1/2 and p65/NF-κB. The levels of p-JNK1/2 (B) and p-ERK1/2 (C) were quantified and normalized with their respective total JNK1/2 or Erk1/2 levels. Each value was then expressed relative to the one treated with LPS alone for 60 minutes, which was set as 100. *P < 0.05 versus treated with LPS alone within the same time point. Values are means ± SE of three independent experiments. PAR, paroxetine; LPS, lipopolysaccharide.