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Table 1 Effects of inflammatory activated-glia in mixed neuronal-glial cultures on neuronal death. Neuronal death was assessed by propidium iodide staining (PI, necrosis) or chromatin condensation of neuronal nuclei by Hoechst 33342 staining (CC, a marker of apoptosis) 48 hours after treatment. Nitrite (the primary breakdown product of NO) levels were measured in the culture medium 48 hours following treatments. Statistical differences were established using ANOVA at *p < 0.05 and ***p < 0.001. Data expressed is mean ± SEM, n = 3 or more.

From: Activation of microglial NADPH oxidase is synergistic with glial iNOS expression in inducing neuronal death: a dual-key mechanism of inflammatory neurodegeneration

TREATMENT PI (%) CC (%) NITRITE (μM)
UNTREATED 0.9 ± 0.9 0.5 ± 0.6 2.7 ± 3.0
LPS/IFN-γ 5.7 ± 3.4 * 3.6 ± 1.5 * 18.6 ± 8.4 ***
TNF-α/IFN-γ 5.6 ± 0.4 *** 4.3 ± 2.9 * 4.2 ± 2.8
IL-1β/IFN-γ 1.1 ± 1.1 0.6 ± 0.7 3.7 ± 2.1
TNF-α/IL-1β/IFN-γ 6.3 ± 4.1 * 5.5 ± 3.2 * 4.5 ± 1.4