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Table 1 CCR and CCL molecules in plaques, blood and CSF of MS patients. This Table summarizes in a cross-sectional manner major findings regarding CCR and CCL expression in brain, blood and CSF of multiple sclerosis patients. The dynamic nature of changes is detailed in the text. The interactions of CCL-CCR molecules on specific cell types are depicted in Figure 1. Type II and III lesions refer to the histological classification proposed by Lucchinetti et al [45]. References are indicated in brackets.

From: Involvement of β-chemokines in the development of inflammatory demyelination

  In chronic active plaque expressed on In blood expressed on In CSF expressed on
CCR1 Monocyte, macrophage, lymphocyte [39,41,42]   
CCR2 Monocyte, macrophage, lymphocyte [39-42] TH2 in SPMS [54]  
CCR3 Monocyte, macrophage, lymphocyte [39-42]   
CCR4 Monocyte, macrophage, lymphocyte [39]   
CCR5 Monocyte, macrophage, lymphocyte [39-42] TH1/TH0 in RRMS [42, 52-54] MNC [39,55,58]
CCR7    T, dendritic [58]
CCR8 Macrophage, microglia in type II and III lesions [19]   
  In early -> late stage type II lesion   
CCR1+/CCR5+ -> CCR1-/CCR5+ Monocyte, macrophage [43]   
CCR1-/CCR5- -> CCR1-/CCR5+ Microglia [43]   
  In acute, and to lesser degrees, in chronic active plaques expressed by In blood expressed by In CSF
CCL2 Astrocyte, microglia, MNC [46]   low in relapse [59,61,63,64]
CCL3 Astrocyte, microglia, macrophage [47-49]   increased in relapse [59-61]
CCL4 Microglia, macrophage [47-49] MNC [56]  
CCL5 MNC, astrocyte [48-50] MNC [56] increased in relapse [59-61]
CCL7 Astrocyte, microglia, MNC [46]   
CCL8 Astrocyte, microglia, MNC [46]   
CCL19    present in NIND, increased in MS, CIS-ON, IND [67]
CCL21    increased in MS, CIS-ON, IND [67]