Neurological outcome after head injury in wild-type and CD59-/- mice. The posttraumatic neurological impairment was determined by a standardized 10-parameter "Neurological Severity Score" (NSS) in normal untreated ("nil"), sham-operated, and head-injured mice from 1 h to 7 days after trauma (total: n = 134 mice). The neurological assessment was performed in a blinded fashion by two different investigators. A maximal score of 10 points corresponds to a severe neurological impairment, while a score of 0 points reflects normal behavior. The graph shows the resultant median levels of the groups at different time-points. Normal untreated mice (n = 7 per group) and sham-operated mice (n = 30 per group) had normal neurological scores ranging from 0–2 points, with no difference between wild-type and CD59a-/- mice. In head-injured mice (n = 30 per group), the baseline NSS was titrated to be in a similar range between head-injured and CD59a-/- mice at 1 h (P> 0.05). By 7 days after trauma, the CD59a-/- mice had a significantly worse outcome compared to wild-type littermates, as reflected by a significantly increased NSS (*P < 0.05, repeated measures ANOVA). TBI, traumatic brain injury; WT, wild-type.