MCP-1 secretion in astrocytoma and microglial cells. Secretion of MCP-1 in U138 (H63D/Wt) and U251 (Wt/Wt) human astrocytoma cell lines and mouse microglial BV-2 cells was determined with various concentrations of DFO or FAC, as reported in Methods. MCP-1 concentration in medium was determined, relative to the protein content of each well, and was normalized to control levels. n = 4. *, **, and *** represent p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively, compared to control.