Dimethyl fumarate inhibits LPS-induced mRNA expression of iNOS (A), Il-1β (B), Il-6 (C) and TNF-α (D) in astrocytes. LPS was added to astrocytes 30 min after the addition of dimethylfumarate (10 μM), its effect on mRNA expression was analyzed after 6 hours of treatment. mRNA expression was analyzed using TaqMan real-time RT-PCR and results for cells treated with dimethyl fumarate were compared to those of cells stimulated solely by LPS. 18s RNA (a housekeeping gene) was used as an internal control. The data were assessed from 3 independent experiments, each run in triplicate. Asterisks (* = p < 0.05; ** = p < 0,01), indicate significant differences compared to cells stimulated solely by LPS (ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni test). Note that the reduction of iNOS mRNA (Fig. 3A) is not statistically significant.