TGFβ signaling in activated microglia/macrophages increases in the stroke penumbra after stroke. A.) Representative image (40×) showing CD68+ activated microglia and macrophages) co-localized with pSmad2 after stroke. Image is from a young female mouse at day 3 post stroke. See additional file 5 for a 3D projection. B.) CD68 immunoreactivity increases in the first 3 days after stroke with the majority of CD68+ cells co-localizing with pSmad2 (*p < 0.05 compared to sham).