Redox signaling drives p38 MAPK activation. A) Cell lysates from uninfected control (C) or virus-infected (+HSV) microglial cells, pretreated with either DPI (1 μM) or APO (300 μM), were collected at 2 h post-infection and MAPK activation was assessed using Western Blot. B) The effect of NADPH oxidase inhibitors (1 h pretreatment) on virus-induced activation of p38 MAPK was quantified 2 h post-infection using a FACE assay. Data are presented as mean ± SD of triplicates and are representative of 2 separate experiments. **p < 0.01 vs. uninfected control; ††p < 0.01 vs HSV alone.