Comparison of the astrocyte and microglial response in the brain of WT versus Lcn2 KO mice following intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Mice were injected i.p. with sterile PBS with or without LPS and received a second LPS injection (dual) 16 h later, and were euthanized 4 h after the second injection. Total protein was extracted from the brain and 30 μg analyzed by Western blot (A) and quantified (B) as described in the Materials and Methods. For immunohistochemistry (C) mice were perfused intracardially with ice-cold 4% PBS-buffered paraformaldehyde the brains removed and immunohistochemistry performed for GFAP or IBA-1 as described in the Materials and Methods.