Effects of betaine on LPS-induced increases in the levels of mRNA related to inflammation. Mice were treated with betaine (0.081 and 0.163 mmol/kg, s.c.) 24 hr before and immediately before LPS injection (30 μg/mouse, i.c.v.), and sacrificed 6 hr after LPS injection. mRNA levels in hippocampus were assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The level of each mRNA was normalized to the mRNA level of β-actin as an endogenous control. Values are shown as the mean ± S.E.M. for 6 mice, as shown in parentheses. Significance levels: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. sham control (unpaired t-test).