Effects of betaine on LPS-induced increases in mRNA expression levels for glial markers. Time-dependent changes in mRNA expression levels for CD11b, CD45, and GFAP in hippocampus 6, 9, 24, and 48 hr after LPS injection (30 μg/mouse, i.c.v.) are shown in figures (A), (C), and (E), respectively. The mice were treated with betaine (0.163 mmol/kg, s.c.) 24 hr before and immediately before LPS injection (30 μg/mouse, i.c.v.), and sacrificed 24 hr after LPS injection. mRNA levels in hippocampus were assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The level of each mRNA was normalized to the mRNA level of β-actin as an endogenous control. Values are shown as the mean ± S.E.M. for 4-8 mice, as shown in parentheses. Significance levels: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. corresponding sham control (unpaired t-test).