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Table 1 Characteristics of the different study groups.

From: Indications of Th1 and Th17 responses in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis: a large retrospective study

  Group 1
Confirmed NB
n = 133
Group 2
Possible late NB
n = 19
Group 3
Possible early NB
n = 15
Group 4
Non-NB
n = 96
Group 5
Control patients
n = 17
Borrelia-specific AI or
Borrelia-specific anti-
bodies in CSF
+ + - - -
CSF pleocytosis + - + - -
CSF-albumin
S-albumin median, (range)
16***
(3.4-76)
5.5
(2.4-21)
3.5
(0-12)
4.3
(0-22)
n.d.
Borrelia-specific IgG/IgM
antibodies detected in
serum; n, (%)
115***
(87)
15*
(79)
15***
(100)
42
(44)
0***
(0)
Men
n, (%)
80
(60)
14
(74)
9
(60)
52
(54)
9
(53)
Women
n, (%)
53
(40)
5
(26)
6
(40)
44
(46)
8
(47)
Median age
years, (range)
35**
(3-87)
52
(18-76)
7***
(2-13)
44
(2-83)
66*
(50-72)
Median duration of
symptoms before LP;
weeks, (range)
2.4
(0-32)
4.0
(0.1-77)
0.7
(0.1-4.0)
3.5
(0-730)
-
Head/neck pain
n, (%)
77
(58)
11
(58)
11
(73)
43
(45)
-
Cranial nerve palsy
n, (%)
70
(53)
4
(21)
11
(73)
13
(14)
-
Radiculitis
n, (%)
53
(40)
7
(37)
0
(0)
3
(3)
-
Other symptom
n, (%)
9
(7)
2
(11)
0
(0)
39
(41)
-
  1. NB: neuroborreliosis.
  2. n: number of patients.
  3. AI: antibody index.
  4. CSF:cerebrospinal fluid.
  5. Pleocytosis:>5 mononuclear cells/μL CSF.
  6. S: serum.
  7. LP: lumbar puncture.
  8. n.d: not done.
  9. Patients could have one or more of the symptoms head/neck pain, cranial nerve palsy and radiculitis. Patients with none of the above symptoms were classified as "other symptom" (e.g. vertigo, muscle and joint pain, parestesias, fatigue, dementia or concentration difficulties).
  10. * significant differences compared to the non-NB group (group 4). * p < 0.01, **p < 0.001, ***p < 0.0001.