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Table 4 Characteristics of the children under 15 years of age¤

From: Indications of Th1 and Th17 responses in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis: a large retrospective study

  Group 1
Confirmed NB
n = 59
Group 3
Possible early NB
n = 15
Group 4
Non-NB
n = 21
Borrelia-specific AI or
Borrelia-specific anti-
bodies in CSF
+ - -
CSF pleocytosis + + -
CSF-albumin
S-albumin median, (range)
11***
(3.4-31)
3.5
(0-12)
3.1
(0-22)
Men
n, (%)
33
(60)
9
(60)
8
(38)
Women
n, (%)
26
(40)
6
(40)
13
(62)
Median age
years, (range)
9
(3-14)
7
(2-13)
9
(2-13)
Median duration of
symptoms before LP;
weeks, (range)
2.0
(0-8.0)
0.7
(0.1-4.0)
1.7
(0-13)
  1. ¤ There were no children in groups 2 and 5.
  2. NB: neuroborreliosis.
  3. n: number of patients.
  4. AI: antibody index.
  5. CSF:cerebrospinal fluid.
  6. Pleocytosis:>5 mononuclear cells/μL CSF.
  7. S: serum.
  8. LP: lumbar puncture.
  9. * significant differences compared with the non-NB group. * p < 0.01, ** p < 0.001, *** p < 0.0001.