Microglia are likely to express phosphorylated p38 in patients with CNS TB. Brain biopsies from five patients with CNS TB were stained. (A) H&E stained section of cerebellar cortex shows typical TB necrotizing granulomas (original magnification 10×). (B) Iba1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) staining confirms a florid microglial and macrophage infiltrate in the TB granuloma (original magnification 20×). (C) p38 immunoreactivity is almost exclusively expressed in the nucleus of microglial cells (original magnification 40×). (D) Iba-1 staining in microglia denoted by arrows with rectangle denoting area enlarged for (E) (original magnification 20×) (E) corresponding p38 positive microglia with characteristic nuclear shape enlarged from rectangle in (D) (original magnification 40×). For immunostaining (B - E) areas of immunoreactivity appear as brown against the blue counterstain. (F) Omission of the primary antibody in CNS TB biopsy demonstrates no immunoreactivity (original magnification 20×).