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Table 1 Immune properties of glia and neurons in the CNS

From: Neuroimmune crosstalk in the central nervous system and its significance for neurological diseases

Properties

Microglia

Astrocyte

Neuron

Innate immunity

   

PRRs

High [1619]

High [20]

Low [21]

Phagocytic receptors

High [1619]

Low [20]

Unknown

Cytokine production

   

Pro-inflammatory

Yes [1619]

Yes [10, 20, 22]

Yes [8, 23]

Anti-inflammatory

Yes [1619]

Yes [10, 20, 22]

Yes [2328]

Adaptive immunity

   

MHC classes

I & II [17, 29] Inducible

I & II [22, 2931] Low/inducible

I [32] Inducible

Co-stimulatory molecules

Inducible [17, 29]

Low/inducible

Unknown

Antigen presentation

Yes [17, 29]

Controversial [29]

Unknown

T-cell differentiation

Th1, Th2 [17, 29, 33]

Th2 [33, 34],

Largely unknown

  

Th1 [33, 34],

 
  

Treg [35, 36]

 

Induction of apoptosis

   

T cells

Yes [18, 29, 3741]

Yes [18, 29, 3741]

Yes [18, 29, 3741]

Microglia

Yes [18, 29, 3741] (self-limiting)

Yes [18, 29, 3741]

Yes [18, 29, 3741]