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Table 1 Immune properties of glia and neurons in the CNS

From: Neuroimmune crosstalk in the central nervous system and its significance for neurological diseases

Properties Microglia Astrocyte Neuron
Innate immunity    
PRRs High [1619] High [20] Low [21]
Phagocytic receptors High [1619] Low [20] Unknown
Cytokine production    
Pro-inflammatory Yes [1619] Yes [10, 20, 22] Yes [8, 23]
Anti-inflammatory Yes [1619] Yes [10, 20, 22] Yes [2328]
Adaptive immunity    
MHC classes I & II [17, 29] Inducible I & II [22, 2931] Low/inducible I [32] Inducible
Co-stimulatory molecules Inducible [17, 29] Low/inducible Unknown
Antigen presentation Yes [17, 29] Controversial [29] Unknown
T-cell differentiation Th1, Th2 [17, 29, 33] Th2 [33, 34], Largely unknown
   Th1 [33, 34],  
   Treg [35, 36]  
Induction of apoptosis    
T cells Yes [18, 29, 3741] Yes [18, 29, 3741] Yes [18, 29, 3741]
Microglia Yes [18, 29, 3741] (self-limiting) Yes [18, 29, 3741] Yes [18, 29, 3741]