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Table 2 Pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules expressed by glia and neurons

From: Neuroimmune crosstalk in the central nervous system and its significance for neurological diseases

Properties Promotion of inflammation Inhibition of inflammation
Microglia   
Soluble factors TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1β [1619]; IL-4, IL-10, IFN-β, TGF-β [1619];
  CXCL1,2,12, CCL2,5,10,19 [42]; BDNF, GDNF [42];
  Glutamate; NO, ATP [1619] TIMPs [43]
  MMPs [43]; Complements [18, 44];  
  HMGB1, heat-shock proteins [25, 4547]  
Membrane proteins TLRs, RAGE, LFA-1, MAC-1, CRs, FcRβ [1619, 21, 25, 4547] CD45, CD91, CD200R, CD172a [18, 48]; CX3CR1 [49]; TREM-2 [50]; FasL, Fas [38, 39]
Astrocytes   
Soluble factors TNF, IFN-γ, IL-1β [10, 20, 22] CXCL1,2,12, CCL2,5,10,19 [20, 42]; IL-4, IL-10, IFN-β, TGF-β [10, 20, 22] Proteoglycans [51, 52];
  Glutamate; NO, ATP; MMPs [10, 20, 22]; Complements [18, 20, 44] HMGB1, heat-shock proteins [25, 4547] BDNF, GDNF [42, 53, 54]; TIMPs [43]
Membrane proteins TLRs, RAGE, ICAM-1, CRs [21, 25, 46] FasL [37, 38], Complement inhibitors [20]
Neurons   
Soluble factors CXCL10, CCL21 [8, 23, 42]; TGF-β [27, 28]; CX3CL1 [49, 55];
Glutamate, dopamine [23]; GABA [56, 57]; VIP [58, 59]; NE
NO, ATP; Substance P [23]; MMPs [43]; HMGB1, heat-shock proteins [25, 4547] [60, 61];
Proteoglycans [51, 52];
NGF, BDNF, NT3, GDNF, CNTF [42, 53, 54]
Membrane proteins TLRs [21] CD22 [62], CD47 [63, 64], CD200 [48], ICAM-5 [65, 66], FasL [37, 38]