HIV-1 and TNF-α induced CXCL10 production in astrocytes. (A) HFA were treated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) in combination with equal concentrations (250 ng/ml p24) of either wild-type HIV-1 NL4-3 (wt) or integrase-defective mutant HIV-1 (M) for 24 h. Cultures were washed once and replaced with fresh medium. Supernatants collected at 48 h after treatment were analyzed for cytokines/chemokines by Bioplex array. (A) IFN-γ, IL-8, MCP-1, PDGF, and (B) CXCL10 were elevated in culture supernatants collected from TNF-α- and HIV-1-treated HFA. (B-C) CXCL10 production from HFA was confirmed by quantitative ELISA. HFA, human fetal astrocytes; MCP, monocyte chemotactic protein; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor.