TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) is expressed by microglia, but not by astrocytes or neurons, and is expressed in a time-dependent manner. (A) Retinas were collected from sham-operated mice and from TRIF-deficient mice at 1, 3, and 7 days post-crush (1dPC, 3dPC, and 7dPC, respectively). TRIF expression was examined by western blotting, which showed that in the sham-operated and 1dPC groups, TRIF expression was limited. At 3dPC and 7dPC, TRIF expression was upregulated. GAPDH and β-actin were used as internal controls. *P < 0.05, increase relative to sham control. (B) Using dual-label immunofluorescence staining, expression of TRIF was detected in microglia but not neurons and astroglia. Iba-1, βIII-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used to identify microglia, neurons, and astroglia in retinal sections. Scale bar = 20 μm. Scale bar (in box) = 10 μm.