Microglial activation in whole-mount retina and microglial migration in an
model. (A) Microglia in wild-type (WT) retina have a different shape from those in the trif
-/- group as shown by CD11b immunostaining at 7 and 14 days post-crush (7dPC and 14dPC). Scale bar = 20 μm. (B) Estimated numbers of microglia/mm2 in whole-mount retinas were different between different time-course groups (*P < 0.05 increase relative to sham and 14dPC group). (C) Estimated number per mm2 of microglia with an amoeboid shape in whole-mount retinas were different between wild-type (WT and trif
-/- groups at 7 and 14 days post-crush (7dPC and 14dPC). *P < 0.01 increase relative to WT group in 7dPC and 14dPC. (D) Outline of whole-mount retina. Square frames (red) were counted using double-blinded quantification. (E) In a transwell system, microglia and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were cultured together (as shown in drawing). Microglia became activated and migrated to the other side of the membrane when stimulated by injured RGCs in the lower well. Stained with cresyl violet acetate. Scale bar = 20 μm.