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Table 1 Demographics and clinical features of the ASD/SPAD children

From: Immunological characterization and transcription profiling of peripheral blood (PB) monocytes in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD): case study

Case Age1 (yr) Race Sex Immuno-deficiency Diagnosis Autism Diagnosis Infection Other co-morbidities and medications3
#14 13 W M SPAD5 Regressive autism CRS, ROM Chronic enterocolitis, asthma
fluoxetine, montelukast,
#24 11 W M SPAD Regressive autism CRS, ROM Seizure disorder7, Chronic enterocolitis
levetiracetam, montelukast, loratadine,
#34 8 W M SPAD Regressive autism CRS Chronic enterocolitis, allergic rhiniconjunctivitis
fluoxetine, montelukast, cetirizine, mometasone nasal inhaler
#44 9 W M SPAD PDD-NOS (regressive) ROM Seizure disorder
valproic acid, L-carnitine, CQ10
#52,4 14 W F SPAD Regressive autism CRS, ROM, Seizure disorder, Chronic enterocolitis, asthma
montelukast, desloratadine, minocycline (for acne), lorazepam
#6 16 W M SPAD Regressive autism CRS Asthma, chronic enterocolitis
Steroid oral inhaler, nasal inhaler, guanfacine
#7 7 W F SPAD PDD-NOS (regressive) CRS, ROM Seizure disorder
montelukast, nasal inhaler, levetiracetam, azithromycin (prophylaxis)
#8 6 mixed M SPAD6 Regressive autism COM guanfacine, risperidone, benzatropine
  1. 1 Ages at the time of SPAD diagnosis. It should be noted that Case #1 and Case #2 were followed up in the clinic for 2-3 yrs prior to SPAD diagnosis but their initial laboratory values were not consistent with SPAD diagnosis. Their clinical features progressed over 2-3 yrs to fulfill the diagnosis of SPAD.
  2. 2 This patient developed anti-phospholipid syndrome 5 yrs after being treated with IVIG.
  3. 3 Co-morbidities present at the time of presentation and medications at the time of sample obtainment.
  4. 4 Positive history of food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES)
  5. 5 Abbreviations used: COM (chronic otitis media), CRS (chronic rhinosinusitis), PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified), ROM (recurrent otitis media), SPAD (specific polysaccharide deficiency), and W (Caucasians)
  6. 6 This patient also revealed low IgG levels but did not fall into the diagnostic criteria for common variable immunodeficiency; immunoglobulin levels of 2 isotypes are lower than two standard deviations of mean values of age-appropriate controls.
  7. 7 In Case #2 and Case #7, a main trigger of seizure activities has been respiratory infection. In Case#7, onset of seizure clusters were almost always triggered by respiratory infection prior to IVIG treatment. After implementation of IVIG treatment, no clinical seizures have been observed in case #2. In case #7, seizure activity appears to be not associated with infection any more after starting IVIG treatment and prophylaxis doses of azithromycin (3 times per week).