Semi-quantitative flow-cytometry analysis of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 levels in neutrophils, microglia and macrophages after MR16-1 treatment. Representative flow-cytometry plots at 1 day post-injury showed large numbers of neutrophils positive for intracellular IFN-γ in (A) the rat IgG control group with (B) smaller numbers in the MR16-1-treated group. (C, D) The numbers of neutrophils and their levels of IFN-γ, but not IL-4, were significantly lower in the MR16-1-treated group compared with the control group from 1 to 7 days post-injury. (E, F) Representative data at 3 days post-injury showed that the MR16-1-treated group had larger numbers of microglia and greater positivity for IL-4 compared with the rat IgG control group, and this difference was significant from 1 day to 7 days post-injury. (G, H) However, there was no significant difference in IFN-γ expression. (I, J, K) At 3 days post-injury, the total number of macrophages was lower in (I, J) the MR16-1-treated group compared with (K) the control group, and this difference was significant from 1 to 7 days post-injury, with increased IL-4 expression at days 1 and 3, and (L) decreased expression of IFN-γ. (C, D, G, H, K and L) Data are expressed as mean ± SD; n = 5 for each group. (C, G, K) paired t-test; (D, H, L) ANOVA test; *P <0.05, **P <0.01.