Effect of BBG, OxATP and A-438079 on I/R-induced astroglial and microglial activation. (A) Representative immunoreactivity for GFAP (left) and Iba-1 (right) in the hippocampal CA1 region at the third day (+3D). (B) Quantitative analysis of IOD values of GFAP in the hippocampal CA1 region at +3D. (C) Quantitative analysis of IOD values of Iba-1 in the hippocampal CA1 region at +3D. Values are expressed as the mean ± S.E.M. All photomicrographs are × 400. Scale bar: 10 μm. **P < 0.01 versus saline group; ##P < 0.01 versus sham group; #P < 0.05 versus sham group(n = 4 in all the groups). BBG, Brilliant blue G; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; IOD, integrated optical density; Iba1, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1; I/R, ischemia/reperfusion; OxATP, adenosine 5′-triphosphate-2′,3′-dialdehyde; S.E.M., standard error of the mean.