Effects of ATB-346 on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α in ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (Iba)1 positive cells. Brain tissue was double-stained with antibodies against Iba1 (green) and TNFα (red). Microglial cells (Iba1+ cells) expressed TNFα in TBI and TBZ panels. A considerable reduction of cytokine expression was present in naproxen panels; however, ATB-346 reduced notably TNFα expressions (TBI + ATB-346 panels). The red spots indicate the co-localizations (merged). All images were digitalized at 600 dpi.