CSF-induced cellular activation, inflammatory response and oxidative stress in choroid plexus epithelial cell cultures. mRNA expression of NF-Κβ (A), MCP-1 (B), IL-8 (C), IL-1β (D), IL-6 (E) and HO-1 (F) in HCPEpiC cells, exposed to culture medium containing 1 to 30% (of cell culture medium volume) CSF from preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) for 4 and 24 hours was determined using real-time PCR as described in Materials and Methods. The mRNA expression of all respective genes was normalized against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and is given as fold change. The fold-change values were calculated by normalizing against control samples from untreated cells. Results are from triplicate experiments and presented as mean ± SEM. Differences between the respective exposures versus control for respective time point were analyzed using ANOVA post hoc Bonferroni. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.