Schematic of signaling pathways involved in HIV-1 Tat-mediated up-regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 in astrocytes. The major signaling pathways involved in HIV-1 Tat-mediated up-regulation of IL-6 are PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK which lead to the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 (solid line). Induction of IL-8 by HIV-1 Tat involves PI3K/Akt, p38 and C-Jun N-terminal kinase/mitogen activated-protein kinase (JNK MAPK) signaling pathways, leading to the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factors (broken line). The siRNAs used to target various isoforms are indicated by a green color whereas drug targets are indicated by a blue color. The involvement and absence of a particular isoform or a signaling molecule is indicated by a dark color and a pale color, respectively. Specific inhibitors used for targeting signaling molecules are indicated by a red color.