Increased expression of NLRP1 and caspase-1 in the neurons of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patient brains. (a) Cerebral NLRP1 and NeuN levels from Case 1 TLE patient and Case 1 ‘healthy control’ individual were detected by western blot analysis. β -actin was used as loading control. (b) Levels of NLRP1, NeuN and NLRP1/NeuN were quantified by densitometric measurement. Values are the mean ± standard deviation. (c) Double immunofluorescent detection of NLRP1 in the NeuN-positive neurons of Case 6 TLE patient and Case 6 ‘healthy control’ individual. (d) The expression level of active caspase-1 (20KD) in Case 3 TLE patient and Case 3 ‘healthy control’ individual was analyzed using the western blot assay. Tissue samples from hippocampus of the TLE group and control group were immunostained using anti-NLRP1 and anti-NeuN antibodies and examined under a fluorescence microscope. Scale bars: 20 μm. n = 6 individuals per group.