An immunofluorescence double labeling image (x 40) showing the effects of intra-PVN infusion of VIPER on protein expression of TLR4 and CD11B in the PVN of WKY and SHR rats. SHR + CP rats showed modest expression of TLR4 within the microglia of PVN, whereas, VIPER infusion in these rats caused significant reduction in TLR4 expression. Arrow indicates double-labeled cells.VIPER infusion in saline-infused rats did not have any effects. n = 5/group. Scale bar 20 μm : CD11B, cluster of differentiation molecule 11B; CP, control peptide; PVN, paraventricular nucleus; SHR, spontaneously hypertensive rat; TLR4, Toll-like receptor 4; VIPER, viral inhibitory peptide of TLR4; WKY, wistar-Kyoto.