Decrease of miR-15b and miR-16 expression in hyperglycemia and transfection-induced fold changes. (A) Fold changes of microRNA (miR)-15b and miR-16 expression are shown. After 3 days of retinal endothelial cell (REC) culture in a high-glucose (25 mM) medium, the expression of both miR-15b and miR-16 was reduced (0.6- and 0.2-fold change, respectively) compared to that of the normal-glucose (NG; 5 mM) group. (B, C) Transfection-induced fold changes of miR-15b and miR-16 expression in REC. REC were transfected with mimics (30 nM of final concentration) of miR-15b and/or miR-16 to increase the level of expression in a hyperglycemic condition. Approximately 167- and 54-fold increases (miR-15b and miR-16, respectively) were detected following transfection with the mimic, compared to the high glucose (HG) control. The y-axis is a logarithmic scale. *P < 0.05 versus HG, N = 3; data are mean ± S.E.M.