Effect of MSC transplantation on apoptosis, functional recovery, and brain water content. Influence of MSC transplantation on apoptosis, mNSS, and brain water content. Compared with the PBS-treated group, the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the cortical hemorrhagic boundary in the MSC group was significantly decreased at 72 h after ICH (A, B). The mNSS and brain water content were tested 24 and 72 h after ICH. Treatment with MSCs significantly lowered mNSS at 24 and 72 h. The mNSS was differed significantly 72 h after ICH between the PBS- and MSC- treated groups (C). The PBS-treated group had a significantly higher brain water content than the sham-operated control group. MSC treatment reduced brain water content compared with the PBS-treated group 24 and 72 h after ICH. The brain water content was different between the two groups 72 h after ICH (D). n = 6 in each time point per group. Data are presented as the mean ± SD. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. Original magnification, × 600. mNSS, modified neurological severity score; MSCs, mesenchymal stem cells; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; TUNEL, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated-dUTP nick-end labeling.