AMWAP reduces pro-inflammatory microglial nitric oxide production and neurotoxicity on photoreceptor cells. (A) Production of nitric oxide (NO) as determined by detection of nitrite from BV-2 microglial cells pre-treated with 10 μg/ml AMWAP or vehicle for 24 h before stimulation with 50 ng/ml LPS for further 24 h. Data show mean ± SD (n = 6/group) with *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 for AMWAP + LPS vs. LPS-treated cells. (B) 661W photoreceptor cells were incubated with conditioned media from vehicle-, 10 μg/ml AMWAP-, 50 ng/ml LPS-, and 50 ng/ml LPS + 10 μg/ml AMWAP-treated BV-2 microglia for 48 h and apoptosis-related caspase 3/7 activity was determined. Data show mean ± SD (n = 5/group) with *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 for AMWAP-treated cells vs. control and AMWAP + LPS vs. LPS-treated cells, respectively. PBS served as a vehicle control. NO, nitric oxide; RLU, relative luciferase units.