Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration disrupts myelination in the cerebellum and pons of neonatal mice. Brain cryosections from C57BL/6 CX3CR1gfp/+ mice at days 1/3/5/7/9 post-LPS administration were immunolabeled for myelin (myelin basic protein, MBP, red). Representative confocal images of the cerebellum and pons are displayed in (A), where the overlapping of MBP and microglial marker CX3CR1 (green) is seen in yellow. (B) Area fraction per field of MBP staining was quantified per region using ImageJ software (NIH, USA). (C) To assess microglial phagocytosis, confocal images at days LPS1 and LPS3 were amplified (overlapping of MBP and CX3CR1 is visible in yellow). Sections of animals at LPS1 were immunolabeled for apoptosis (ApopTag, red) and oligodendrocytes precursor cells (NG2 cells, green). (D) Cerebellar layers are identified [external germinal layer (EGL), molecular layer (ML), Purkinje layer, internal granular layer (IGL)]. (E) Area fraction per field of ApopTag and of NG2 positive stainings were determined using ImageJ software (NIH, USA). *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 vs. without (W/O) LPS.