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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: Inhibition of NOX1/4 with GKT137831: a potential novel treatment to attenuate neuroglial cell inflammation in the retina

Fig. 4

In cultured microglia, elevated ROS and protein levels of inflammatory mediators were reduced with GKT137831. N normoxia control (21 % O2), H hypoxia control (0.5 % O2). GKT137831 (GKT), 5 μM. Primary cultures of rat retinal microglia exposed to normoxia, hypoxia, and GKT for 16 h. a Quantitation of ROS levels. b Micrographs of retinal microglia labeled with dihydroethidium to detect ROS. Scale bar = 100 μm. cn Protein levels of inflammatory mediators were measured by a rat cytokine antibody array. c VEGF. d IL-6. e TNFα. f IL-1β. g Soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1). h CINC2. i CINC3. j RANTES. k CXCL3. l CXCL5. m IFNϒ. n MCP-1. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001 to normoxia control. #P < 0.05 and ##P < 0.01 to hypoxia control. Values are mean ± SEM. n = 3 to 4 independent experiments and performed in triplicate

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