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Table 1 Clinicopathologic and bioelectrical characteristics of retina in diabetes

From: Neuroinflammatory responses in diabetic retinopathy

Morphological features Clinicopathologic features Bioelectrical features Model References
No apparent retinopathy mfERG: implicit times prolong Human [36, 37]
VEP: P100 implicit time delay Human
Microaneurysma Loss of pericytes   Rat [5]
Hard exudative Degeneration of photoreceptor and neuronal elements in the outer plexiform layer   Human [31]
Cotton-wool spot Microinfarct of the nerve fiber layer PERG: amplitude reduce Human [25, 32]
IRMA Shunt vessels and re-vascularize the hypoxic neuropile   Human [32]
Neovascularization Disrupt local basement membrane OPs amplitude is correlated with the grade of DR Human [28, 39]
Hemorrhage    Human [38]
 Dot-and-blot Hemorrhage in the inner nuclear layer
 Flame-shaped Hemorrhage in the nerve fiber layer
 Globular Hemorrhage in the middle neural retinal layer
 Confluent Hemorrhage in all neural retinal layers
 Massive Hemorrhage break through internal limiting membrane
Retina detachment Shrinkage of the fibroglial component    
Fibrovascular membrane Composed of blood vessels, fibrous, glial matrix tissue, fibroblasts, and glial cells    
DME Intracellular fluid collections in Müller cells, extracellular fluid in the outer plexiform and the inner nuclear layers mfERG: P1 latency decrease Human [41, 44, 45]
Macular OPs: reduced Human
Diabetic optic nerve Vascular leakage and axonal edema in and around the optic nerve head Increased VEP latency Rat [26, 47]