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Table 1 Dog population, initial neurologic signs, and clinical diagnosis work-up

From: Adult autologous mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of suspected non-infectious inflammatory diseases of the canine central nervous system: safety, feasibility and preliminary clinical findings

Case Breed Sex Age (years) Neurologic signs MRI CSF
1 Labrador retriever M 4 Acute onset of tremors, severe ataxia, cervical pain Single brainstem lesion, hyperintense in T2 and FLAIR, variable contrast enhancement Mononuclear pleocytosis
2 Chihuahua M 4 Acute onset of depression, compulsive walking, cervical pain Normal Mononuclear pleocytosis
3 Half-breed M 3 Acute onset of general tremors, tetraparesis, cervical pain Diffuse spinal cord lesion at C3-C4, hyperintense in T2 and FLAIR, severe contrast enhancement Mononuclear pleocytosis
4 Golden retriever F 2 Acute onset of compulsive walking, cervical pain, depression, tetraparesis Normal Mononuclear pleocytosis
5 Cocker Spaniel F 3.5 Peracute onset of circling, ataxia, vision deficit, cervical pain Multifocal lesions in both white and gray matter, hyperintense in T2 and FLAIR, no contrast enhancement Mononuclear pleocytosis
6 Poodle F 1 Acute onset of severe circling, head tilt, seizures Multifocal cerebrum and brainstem lesions, hyperintense in T2 and FLAIR, no contrast enhancement Mixed pleocytosis (lymphocytic/mononuclear)
7 Yorkshire terrier M 1.5 Acute onset of alternate mental status agitation-stupor, seizures Diffused hyperintensity in T2 an FLAIR in all left brain hemisphere, variable contrast enhancement Mononuclear pleocytosis
8 Boxer F 2 Peracute onset of severe cervical pain and weakness, tremors, partial seizures Multifocal lesions hyperintense in T2 and FLAIR, variable contrast enhancement Mixed pleocytosis (mainly mononuclear)