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Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: Progesterone treatment reduces neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and brain damage and improves long-term outcomes in a rat model of repeated mild traumatic brain injury

Fig. 5

PROG treatment reduces neuroinflammation and oxidative stress after rFPI. As shown in the representative images of GFAP (ad) and CD68 (eh) immunofluorescence staining, rFPI + VEH rats had significantly increased GFAP immunoreactive area (i) and CD68-positive cells (j), whereas the rFPI + PROG group did not significantly differ from SHAM groups on either measure. The rFPI + VEH rats also showed significantly increased levels of MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation, compared to all other groups (k). Though rFPI + PROG rats had significantly less lipid peroxidation than rFPI + VEH rats, they had significantly more lipid peroxidation than both SHAM groups. Triple asterisks significantly different than all other groups, double asterisks significantly different than SHAM groups, p < 0.05

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