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Fig. 3 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 3

From: Hyperammonemia induces glial activation, neuroinflammation and alters neurotransmitter receptors in hippocampus, impairing spatial learning: reversal by sulforaphane

Fig. 3

Hyperammonemia induces activation of microglia and astrocytes in the hippocampus, which are reversed by sulforaphane. Activation of microglia and astrocytes in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was assessed by immunohistochemistry in control (C) and hyperammonemic (HA) rats treated with vehicle (V) or sulforaphane (SFN). Microglia and astrocytes were stained with Iba-1 (ad) and GFAP (ah) antibodies, respectively. il The perimeter of the cells was measured using the ImageJ analysis software after setting an intensity threshold and size filter. The results were expressed as percentage of values in control rats for microglia (i) and astrocytes (j). Values significantly different from control rats are indicated by asterisks. Values significantly different from hyperammonemic rats are indicated by a. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ap < 0.05, aa p < 0.01. Scale bars 20 μm

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